# An Important Role Of Statistics And Probability In Data Science And Analytics

• By Deepali Shinkar
• March 27, 2023
• Data Science

# An Important Role Of Statistics And Probability In Data Science And Analytics

A question is frequently posed.

Why is it necessary to study probability and statistics?

What functions do statistics and probability serve in the field of data science? Let’s make the explanation of its relevance rational and understandable.

If you don’t already know, data science is currently the occupation with the highest demand. People also refer to it as 21st-century sexist employment. Probability and statistics are important concepts to understand if you want to work in the field of data science.

They are necessary to enter the field of data science. It is stated that statistics and probability knowledge are prerequisites for learning data science. Usually, people aren’t very interested in these subjects.

The most crucial aspect of data science is prediction and the search for various data structures. They are significant because they can manage a variety of analytical activities.

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In addition to the applied sciences, data science is influenced by informatics,  computer science, mathematics, operations research, and statistics.

Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) and its subtopic Data Mining are other sources of data science. Knowledge discovery methods from various fields, such as inductive learning, (Bayesian) statistics, query optimization, expert systems,

information theory, and fuzzy sets, are already combined in KDD. KDD is a key component in fostering interaction between many fields in order to achieve the ultimate objective of finding knowledge in data.

One of the most comprehensive definitions of Data Science was recently given by C the formula:

data science = (statistics + informatics +

computing + communication + sociology +

management) | (data + environment + thinking)

In this formula, sociology stands for the social aspects, and | (data + environment +  thinking) means that all the mentioned sciences act on the basis of data, the environment, and the so-called data-to-knowledge-to-wisdom thinking.

One of the most crucial fields in which to identify structure in data and to gain a better understanding of it, statistics is also the most crucial field in which to assess and quantify uncertainty.

The two key ideas in maths are probability and statistics. Everything of probability is based on chance. Although statistics focuses more on the methods we use to handle different types of data. It aids in the representation of complex data in a very simple and clear manner.

Data preprocessing, feature transformation, data imputation, dimensionality reduction, feature engineering, model evaluation, etc. all service statistics and probability.

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In today’s tech environment, data is crucial. All technology is data-driven, and enormous volumes of data are generated every day. Terminologies and approaches for using statistics in data science are included in the fundamentals of statistics. Statistics is a crucial tool for data analysis. Also, as a  basis, a data science aspirant must be familiar with the fundamentals and operation of linear regression and classification methods.

Numerical Data

Numerical data is the information in numbers i.e. numeric which poses as a  quantitative measurement of things.

For example:

1. Heights and weights of people
2. Result of students

Discrete Data

Discrete data is the information that often counts of some event i.e. can only take specific values. These are often integer-based, but not necessarily.

For example:

1. Number of times a coin was flipped
2. Shoe sizes of people

Continuous Data

Continuous Data is information that has the possibility of having infinite values  i.e. can take any value within a range.

For example:

How many centimeters of rain fell on a given day

Categorical Data

This type of data is qualitative in nature and has no inherent mathematical significance. It is sort of a fixed value under which a unit of observation is assigned or “categorized”.

For example:

1. Gender
2. Binary Data (Yes/No)
3. Attributes of a vehicle like color, mileage, number of doors, etc.

Ordinal Data

This type of data is the combination of numerical and categorical data i.e. categorical data having some mathematical significance.

For example:

Restaurant ratings from 1-5, 1 being the lowest and 5 being the highest.

Statistics-related terminologies

A statistical sample is taken from the population, which is a complete set of data. It can be pictured as a comprehensive data set of things that share comparable characteristics.

Sample: It is a subset of the population or a crucial component of the population gathered for the study.

Variable: A value that can have properties like the amount that can be quantified; also known as a data point or data piece.

Data from a sample is dispersed over a particular range of values.

Parameter: It is a value that is used to characterize the properties of an entire data set, or “population” as it is also known. Example: Typical, Percentage.

Quantitative analysis: It deals with specific characteristics of data summarizing some part of data, such as its mean, variance, and so on. Qualitative analysis: This deals with generic information about the type of data,  and how clean or structured it is.

Individual attributes, such as marital status, gender, favorite foods, and so forth, are represented by categorical data. ‘Qualitative data’ or ‘yes/no data’ are other names for it. It accepts numbers like “1” and “2,” where these numbers denote different types of attributes. These numbers cannot be related to one another since they are not mathematically significant.

Continuous data deals with information that is uncountable and immeasurable,  which is essentially what continuous forms of values are. A linear regression produces continuous predictions. The probability density function is another name for this continuous distribution.

Contrarily, discrete values are discontinuous, measurable, and countable. Logistic regression predictions are thought to be discrete in nature.

This conclusion encourages statisticians to play their part in this contemporary and widely accepted subject of data science. Mathematics and statistics are the heart of data science.

Scientific findings supported by appropriate methods will only arise by completing and/or combining mathematical techniques and computing algorithms with statistical reasoning, particularly for Big Data. In the end, great Data Science solutions can only be achieved through a balanced interaction of all relevant fields.

Author:-

Deepali Shinkar
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