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  • August 1, 2022
  • Cyber Security




Cyber-forensics is an electronic discovery technique used to identify and uncover technical evidence of criminal activity. This often involves extracting data from on-premise and/or cloud storage to electronic storage to create a chain of evidence for legal process purposes.

In technical jargon, the concept of reverse engineering may also be referred to as computer forensics or digital forensics. In this more general context, the term is used to describe an investigation that takes apart and analyzes code to determine where the code broke (debugging) or how a cybersecurity exploit was made.



anti-forensic aims to make investigations on digital media more difficult and therefore more expensive. It is usually possible to distinguish anti-forensic techniques into specific categories, each of which is specifically designed to attack one or more steps that analysts will perform during their activities. All forensic analysts, whether from private or public laboratories such as the police, take specific steps during each stage of analyzing a new case.

Knowledge of these steps, generally summarized as “Identification”, “Acquisition”, “Analysis” and “Reporting”, is the first step to better understanding the benefits and limitations of each anti-forensic technique. As in many other areas of information security, a good level of security is achieved through a stratified problem-solving model. This means that challenging just one of these steps by investigators often does not produce the desired result. Moreover, an expert analyst will at best still be able to demonstrate that he was able to deal with some evidence, even without knowing the content of that evidence. Ethical Hacking Classes in Pune have helped our students secure jobs. Instead, attacking the identification, acquisition, and analysis phase of evidence collection will do just the opposite.

These are the general anti-forensic categories discussed in this document:

  • Data hiding, obfuscation, and encryption
  • Trail Blackout
  • Falsification of data
  • Overwriting data/metadata:
  • Data deletion and physical destruction
  • Encryption
  • Online anonymity


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Data hiding is one of the anti-forensic techniques that attackers use to create inaccessible knowledge. Exhaustive NTFS-based disks contain unhealthy clusters during the data file as BadClus, and also the MFT eight entry represents these bad clusters. BadClus could be a sparse file that allows attackers to cover an unlimited amount of information further because it contains a large number of clusters for BadClus that cover a lot of information.



Trail Obfuscation is one of many anti-forensic techniques that attackers use to mislead, complicate, disorient, divert and/or distract the rhetorical investigative method. the method includes completely different techniques and tools such as:

  • Wood cleaners
  • Spoofing
  • Misinformation
  • Bouncing spine
  • Zombie accounts
  • Trojan commands

 In this method, attackers delete or modify the information of some vital files to confuse the incident responders. They modify header data and various roles using file extensions. Timestamping, which is part of the Metasploit Framework, is one every path obfuscation tool that attackers use to switch, modify, and delete date and time information and make it useless for transforming incident responses. a tool used to make a mess of the way. After the Ethical Hacking course in Pune, you will be professional enough to beat any type Of Interview



The term forgery usually describes a message-related attack against a cryptographic digital signature scheme. This is an attack that tries to produce a digital signature for a message without having access to the private signing key of the relevant signer.


  • Overwriting data/metadata:

Intruders use various programs to write information to the storage device, making it difficult or impossible to recover. These programs will record information, metadata, or each to prevent a forensic investigation method. Rewriting programs adds 4 modes:

  • Overwrite the entire media
  • Overwrite individual files
  • Overwrite deleted files on media
  • Overwriting information will be done using disk sanitization

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Metadata refers to data that stores details about the knowledge. It plays a vital role within society. Its forensic investigation method by providing details such as the time of creation, the names of the systems used to create and modify it, the name of the author, the time and date of modification, and the names of the users who modified the UN Agency file, and various details. Incident responders will create a timeline of the attackers’ actions by arranging the file’s timestamps and various details in a ranked order.



While anyone can delete data, it takes an experienced professional to actually destroy data. The goal of data destruction is to completely get rid of any trace of data so that it is no longer accessible. This goal can be achieved in several different ways, including physical destruction, degaussing, and overwriting.



Encryption is a method of translating information into a secret code so that only licensed personnel can access it. it is effective due to information security. To browse an encrypted file, users need a secret key or countersign that can overwrite the file. Therefore, most attackers use the encryption technique as the most effective anti-forensic technique. Data encryption is one commonly used technique to defeat the rhetorical investigation method and involves encoding codes, files, folders, and typically complete exhaustive drives. The intruders use robust coding algorithms to encrypt the information about the price of the investigation, which makes this information almost indistinct even if the key is not selected. Some algorithms deflect investigative processes by applying special functions as well as by using a key file, full-volume encryption, and plausible deniability.



 Attackers use encrypted network protocols to protect the identification of network traffic in addition to its content from the forensic examination. Few cryptographic encapsulation protocols like SSL and SSH will only protect the content of the traffic. However, to protect against traffic analysis, attackers should also anonymize themselves whenever possible. Attackers use virtual routers, such as Onion routing, which provide multiple layers of protection. Onion routing is a technique used for covert network communication. This network encapsulates messages in layers of encryption, similar to the layers of an onion, and uses a worldwide voluntary network of routers to anonymize the delivery and destination of communications. This makes tracking this type of communication and assigning it to a van for incident responders incredibly difficult.



In a buffer overflow exploit, attackers, use the buffer overflow as input to a remote system to inject and execute code in the address house of a running program, successfully modifying the behavior of the victim program. Attackers typically use buffer overflows to gain access to a remote system once they transfer the attack tools, which are stored on the target computer’s hard drive.



The best way to be online anonymity is using incognito mode or TOR Browser



Attackers are fully prepared for the PC forensics tools used by responders to search for and analyze evidence from the “victim’s computer or network.” Therefore, they try to include rhetorical tools and programs to identify methods in the system or malware they use. These programs act intelligently and change the behavior of CFT detective work.

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 Many of the anti-forensic techniques discussed in this paper can be overcome with improved monitoring systems or by fixing bugs in the current generation of computer forensics tools. Overwriting tools can be frustrated by placing data in such a way that an attacker has no way to overwrite it – for example, by sending log files to a “log host” or CD-R, assuming the attacker does not have physical access. Weak file identification heuristics can be replaced with stronger ones. Compression bombs can be defeated using more intelligent decompression libraries. Although there is anecdotal evidence that file encryption and encrypted file systems are becoming a problem for law enforcement, there are also many reports of law enforcement being able to recover encryption passwords and keys using spyware, keyloggers, and other tactics. A prudent attacker is safer using a sanitizing tool than a cryptographic one because the sanitizing agent actually destroys the information.

Many of the techniques discussed in Ethical Hacking Training in Pune still appear to be limited to the research community, although there are occasional reports of specific tools being used by technically sophisticated cybercriminals. Given that law enforcement resources are limited, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that other things being equal; attackers using anti-forensic technology are less likely to be caught than those who do not. Because anti-forensic technologies are aimed explicitly at confounding investigations, it is possible that their use and possibly possession will be prohibited in some organizations. However, the inclusion of high-quality anti-forensic technology in consumer operating systems to support privacy goals will surely render such prohibitions futile. Computer forensics has traditionally relied on information that was inadvertently left behind by other programs. Organizations may soon have to explicitly decide what information they want to keep as part of normal operations, and then make arrangements to keep that information in a forensically sound manner.



Rajat Sharma

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