Basic Procedure of Machine Design

  • By
  • December 1, 2021
  • AutoCAD

Basic Procedure of Machine Design:

The Basic Step of Machine Design Consist of step-by-step approach from the given specification about the functional requirements of a product to a complete description, in the form drawing of the final product. A sequence of design the machine steps is usually common to all design projects. the flow chart shows a Design Process. The below steps are interrelated & Interdependent, each reflecting and affecting all other steps. The detailed steps are mentioned below for the process of machine design.


Fig. Design Process



The first steps consist of preparing a complete list of the requirement of the product. The requirements include the output capacity of the machine, service life, cost, and reliability. In some cases, the overall dimensions and weight of the product are specified.

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The requirements, the designer can prepare rough or sample sketches for different possibility of mechanisms for the product. Ex. while designing a blanking or piercing press, the following mechanism are possible:-

  1. Crank and connecting rod, converting the rotary motion of the electric motor into the reciprocating motion of the punch.
  2. The mechanism of Involving nut and screw, which is a simple and cheap configuration, but has poor efficiency.

The alternative mechanism is compared with each other and with the mechanism of the product that is available in the market. And approximate estimation of the cost of each alternative configuration is made and compared with the cost existing product. Learn more at AutoCAD Training in Pune

This will reveal the competitiveness of the product. While selecting the final configuration, the designer should consider whether the raw material and standard part required for making the product are available in the market. Depending upon the cost competitiveness, availability of raw material, and manufacturing facility, the best possible mechanism is selected for the product. Learn more at AutoCAD Course in Pune



The next step in design procedure is to prepare a block diagram showing the general layout of selected configuration.

  1. the layout of an E.O.T. (Electrically- Operated Overhead Travelling) crane consist of following component.
  1. Electric Motor for supply of Power
  2. Flexible coupling to connect the motor shaft to the clutch shaft 
  3. Clutch to connect or disconnect the electric motor at the  will of the operator
  4. Gear box to reduce the speed  from 1440 rpm to about 14 rpm
  5. Rope drum to convert the rotary motion of the shaft to the linear motion of the wire rope
  6. Wire rope and pulley with the crane hook to attach the load.
  7. Break to the stop the motion

In this method, the designer specifies joining methods, such as riveting, bolting, or welding to connect individual components. Rough sketches of shapes of the individual parts are prepared.

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The design of individual components OR machine elements is an important step in design process. It consist of following stage

  1. Determine the force acting on the component
  2. Select proper material for the component depending upon functional requirement such as strength, rigidity hardness and wear resistance.
  3. Determine the likely mode of failure for the component & depending upon it, select the criterion of failure, such as yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, endurance limit, or permissible deflection.
  4. Determine the geometric dimensions of the component using suitable factor of safety and modify the dimension from assembly and manufacturing consideration. 


The last stage in design process is to prepare drawing of assembly and the individual component. On these drawing, the material of the component, its dimensions, Tolerances, Surface finish grades, & machining symbols are specified. The designer prepare two separate lists of components – standard components to be purchased directly from the market & special component to be machined in the factory.

In many cases, a proto-type model is prepared for the product and thoroughly tested before finalizing the assembly drawings. It is seen that the process of machine design involves systematic approach from known specifications to unknown solution. Quite often, problems arise on the shop floor during the production stage and design may require modification. In such circumstances, the designer has to consult the manufacturing engineer and find out the suitable modification. Learn more at AutoCAD Classes in Pune




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