What is booting?
Answer:– When we start computer, BIOS takes control and run Power On Self test (program) to check whether or not hardware are connected, once it got the reply from all hardware it starts searching operating system or OS installation setup wizard from media as per the boot priority set in BIOS.
Once it got the operating system location from hard disk, it starts loading OS in Random Access Memory, when Operating System gets completely loaded in RAM we can see desktop. This process is called as booting.
If computer not getting connected to network, what troubleshooting you will do?
1) Check cable is connected properly to computer and switch.
2) Check cable with Lan-tester, if requires crimp cable again.
3) Check IP address and subnet mask, default gateway, DNS entry.
4) Ping computer by 127.0.0.1 (loopback) address to confirm that NIC card is able to send and receive packets.
5) Ping to self IP also, if it shows ‘general failure’ then uninstall and again install NIC card drivers from ‘Device Manager’
6)Check the advance services from ‘Networking and Sharing Center.’
Services like a) File and Printer Sharing b) Network discovery should be ON
7) From services tools check services like a) Server b) Workstation are running.
8) Check whether firewall on your computer is blocking ICMP protocol?
Change the rule to allow ICMP protocol.
9) Also Antivirus comes with its own firewall check whether it is blocking ICMP protocol? Change rule of firewall to allow ICMP protocol
10) If after troubleshooting all the steps still computer not getting connected to network try new NIC card.
What is the difference between Antivirus and Firewall?
Answer:- Antivirus detects malware which already infected application and operating system and either quarantine these malware or remove as per the severity.
Firewall Permit or Deny network traffic of IP address, network, subnet, service by creating inbound and outbound rules.
4)Give the port numbers for FTP, Telnet, SMTP,DNS,DHCP HTTP,HTTPS,POP3,IMAP4,SNMP,Kerberos,LDAP,RDP protocols.
1) FTP – 21 2) Telnet -23 3) SMTP-25 4) DNS- 53 5) DHCP – 67,68 6) HTTP – 80
7) HTTPS – 443 8) POP3 – 110 9) IMAP4 – 143 10) SNMP – 161 11) Kerberos- 88
12) LDAP- 389 13) RDP – 3389 14) RIP – 520 15) TFTP – 69
Question-5: What is Blue Screen of Death?
Answer:- Blue screen appears in windows operating system which shows error in system. Reasons are given for this blue screen are as given below.
- a) Operating System crash.
- b) Hard disk malfunctioning.
- c) Ram malfunctioning.
- d) Hardware drivers
Question-6:- System is running slow, what troubleshooting you will do?
Answer:- Troubleshooting steps are as given below
- Do not save data in system drive (‘C:’ drive where operating system is installed). Move the data from system drive to other drive.
- Uninstall unnecessary applications.
- Clear temporary files. (Start->Run->%temp%)
- Run Disk cleanup wizard on every drive.
- Run antivirus application and scan for virus or worms.
- Find out which process consuming more CPU and Ram , stop these process from task manager.
- Check the compatibility of CPU and RAM for Operating system and Applications.
Question-7:– What are the five hives of windows Registry?
Question-8:- How do you verify that Active Directory Domain Service is installed properly?
Answer:- Verify ADDS installation as given below-
1) Start->Windows Administrative Tools->Open Active Directory Users and Computers, if you see domain console then ADDS is installed.
2) Check ADDS tools in Administrative tools like Active Directory Sites and Services, Active Directory Domains and Trust, Active Directory Administrative Center, Group Policy Management Console.
3) Check in C: \Windows folder, NTDS and Sysvol folder is installed.
4) Start->Run->Cmd->Net Accounts
It should show ‘Primary’
5)Start->Event viewer-> Program and Directory services -> check event id
1000 and 1394.
Question-9:- What is Domain and Domain Controller?
- Domain is Area or Area with boundary.
Domain is logical group of users and computers.
- A domain controller is a server that is configured to store a copy of the directory database (NTDS.DIT) and a copy of the SYSVOL folder. Standalone server is promoted to become Domain Controller by installing ADDS.
Question-10:- What is global catalog?
Answer:- Global catalog is responsible to replicate active directory information to all servers within the site. Primary Domain Controller by default works as a Global catalog. Global Catalog maintains read only copy of domain partition of all domains in site. It works as central repository.
System Administrator Profile:-
System Administrator basically manages and maintain Server,Client and network infrastructure.
1)System Administrator manages installations of OS and Applications,user and group management,permissions,policies,security.Troubleshooting of hardware and network issue.Managing local and network printer.
2)In maintainanace part System Administrator monitors performance of hardware and application,operating system.Also download and install updates for operating system,application and antivirus.Backup and restore of user data,application related data,operating system.Set schedule for backup,update,replication etc.
Administrator can use Performance monitoring tools given by microsoft .
Author: Manekar, Sameer
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