Technical top CCNA Interview Questions
Q.1) Is CCNA equivalent to CCNA switching and routing?
Answer: While CCNA in Routing & Switching describes the possibility of getting authorized at associate degree training in route and buttons, CCNA in Networking may be used as an umbrella word for the associate degree training in the training courses offered by Cisco.
Q.2) How many topologies does CCNA cover?
Answer: LAN and WAN networks can be described using one of two topologies: Physical topology describes the actual connections between end devices and intermediary devices (such as wireless access points, routers, and switches).
Q.3) What do Tiers 2 and 3 in CCNA mean?
Answer: The structure of the application server, client, and database server altered in a two- and three-tier architecture. The two-tier architecture is a highly straightforward and user-friendly application and database server topology. A user with a client system with a two-tier design can access the database directly. No intermediary application server exists between the client and the database server. On the client’s computer, the application has been installed.
Q.4) What Do Routers Do in a Network?
Answer: All the devices in a network are connected by a router, allowing them to share a single Internet connection. It establishes wireless or Ethernet connections between computers, printers, and other end devices.
After linking a router to the modem, you may then distribute that Internet connection across all the devices on your network. A router also serves as your security’s first line of defense, guarding your computer system and data from entry and attack.
Q.5) What Functions a Router Has?
Answer: The most fundamental function of a router is to handle network traffic. It enables the communication between a modem and other network devices so they can connect to the Internet. The router does this by efficiently and quickly directing both incoming and outgoing internet traffic on that network.
A router often uses a network connection to connect to the modem’s “Internet” or “WAN” port before connecting to other network components using a different network cable.
Each router has a unique (external) IP address, and every device on your network also obtains a unique (MAC) address, allowing it to receive data packages from servers all over the world. When you attempt to browse a website, your router maintains a database to track which device requested information from where.
Q.6) How Do VPN Routers and VPNs Work?
Answer: Your internet connection can be encrypted or secured using VPNs (virtual private networks). By converting your real IP address to an anonymous one, a VPN makes a covert tunnel within a public or unprotected network that secures all of your online activities. By using a VPN, we may circumvent region limits, stay safe from ISP eavesdropping, get around censorship, and access websites that are only available in certain regions, among other delightful things.
Q.7) What does “protocol” mean?
Answer: In order to communicate information between two or more devices, a protocol is a set of rules that connects such devices. In order to communicate, it is important to understand how data is transported from one network to another.
Q.8) What does the OSI reference model mean?
Answer: The OSI reference model explains how data and information are communicated over a network. It is a conceptual framework for comprehending the connections between transmissions.
Q.9) What exactly are data packets?
Answer: Data packets are units of information packaged together for transmission over a network. As they include the IP information that is connected to each packet, they are also known as a network layer package and are needed by the IP protocol. They carry a wealth of important information, including VoIP (Voice-over-IP) calls, website data, and email messages. An individual numeric identification number that serves as the packet number and order is present in every data packet.
Q.10) By switching, what do you mean?
Answer: In computer networks, switching is a procedure that enables us to join links to create a larger network. It operates at the DLL frame and divides a network into sections using the hardware address or MAC address of connected LAN (Local Area Network) devices.
Q.11) Identify two switch ports.
Answer: The two switch ports consist of:
Access Port: It only connects network hosts to one VLAN and carries that VLAN’s communications. Without any VLAN tagging, communication is delivered and received in its natural format in this case. Access ports essentially connect computers with a minimum 10 Mbps connection to switch ports.
Trunk Port: It frequently links to another switch and can communicate with a number of different VLANs. It belongs to every VLAN in the VLAN database by default. The trunk port primarily serves as a communication point between switch-to-switch and routers.
Q.12) Which LAN switching technique does the Cisco Catalyst 5000 employ most frequently?
Answer: Because it stores the complete frame to its buffers and does a CRC check before selecting whether or not to send that data frame, CISCO Catalyst 5000 typically employs the store and forward switching approach.
Q.13) Describe HDLC.
Answer: A collection of communication protocols known as HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control) often provides dependable delivery of data frames through communication or network links. It is a private protocol used only by Cisco, and it serves as the routers’ default encapsulation. Additionally, it makes sure that data is transmitted without error and can offer both connection-oriented and connectionless services.
Q.14) Describe the several paths that routers offer.
Answer: Employers could inquire about your knowledge of the specifics of the position and your ability to describe the numerous routing options. Consider discussing several types in detail when responding to a query of this nature rather than just listing them. To make your response more substantial, you can additionally outline the advantages of each route type or its purposes.
The three main categories of routes are static route, default route, and dynamic route. Each of these routes has distinct functionality from the others. A static route, also known as a non-adaptive route, is one that is manually added to the routing database or one that is directly configured on a functional interface of the router.
Q.15) What distinguishes a switch from a router or a hub?
Answer: The signal is received by a switch, which is then used to form a frame. It distributes the packets among different LAN segments. When data is transferred at a Data Link layer or Network layer of the OSI model, it serves as the platform for packet control. It enables several collision domains in addition to a single broadcast domain.
Routers: A router is a networking device that acts as a gateway for data packets to be forwarded to computer networks. A router’s IP address, LAN, or WAN connection is made through at least one LAN. Two broadcast domains are supported by routers.
Q.16) What exactly are half- and full-duplex?
Answer: In a half-duplex system, only one direction is used for information or communication transfer.
as in a walkie-talkie
Full-duplex communication involves the transfer of information from both directions.
Talking on the phone, for instance.
Q.17) What exactly is network congestion?
Answer: Network congestion is the process in which a network node is carrying more data than the network can support, as a result of which packet or information loss occurs on the network node and the receiver is unable to receive relevant information.
Q.18)What distinguishes LAN, MAN, and WAN from one another?
Answer: A local area network, or LAN, connects computers and network devices together, typically inside the same room or structure. The connections in a LAN must be swift. Consider Ethernet.
MAN: This type of network connects a number of buildings within the same metropolis through extensive internal connections. For instance, The IUB Network
Wide area networks, or WANs, are networks that are accessible to the general public but are restricted to a single business or organization. It links numerous LANs. The WAN connection is both fast and pricey. Consider the Internet.
Q.19) What is an IP address?
Answer: The answer is that a device’s Internet Protocol (IP Address) is a 32- to 128-bit device identifier on the TCP/IP protocol. A gadget needs a distinct IP address in order to communicate.
It has two main purposes, namely host and location address. Additionally, it comes in IPv4 (32-bit) and IPv6 versions (128-bits).
Q.20) What distinguishes Unicast, Multicast, Broadcast, and Anycast from each other?
Answer: The exchange of messages between a single source and a single destination is known as unicast. When using Unicast, packets transmitted from the sender include the recipient’s data address so that they can be delivered directly to the recipient.
A communication is broadcast when it is sent from one source to as many potential recipients as feasible. It only functions on local networks. Due to the vast volume of irrelevant and pointless material on the public internet, data broadcasting is not possible.
Multicast: The transmission of messages from one sender to numerous recipients. In multicast, your receiving clients and type of broadcasting are determined by the network parameters.
Anycast: This is the transmission of messages from one host to another. TCP and UDP protocols are employed. Every host that requests it gets a copy of every data packet.
Q.21) What kinds of networks are there in the CCNA?
Answer: There are two different kinds of networks.
a network built on servers
Network of peers
Q.22) What is a network subnet, exactly?
Answer: The split of an IP address into two components, such as Network prefix, is what you’re referring to.
Q.23) What is the purpose of PING?
Answer: An example of a packet internet groper is PING. It is used to examine a host’s reachability across an IP network. Any time data is transmitted over the network using an IP address, the recipient is PINGed in order to receive the data from the sender.
Q.24) Explain MAC addresses.
Answer: Media Access Control address is what the MAC stands for. It is specifically specified and kept in ROM. In the network architecture, it is known as the Media Access Control layer.
Q.25) Explain the two switch ports used in computer networks.
Employers might assess your knowledge of switching and how it’s used in networking environments by asking you this question. Given that the question specifically asks you to define the two switch ports, you might want to do so in-depthly and include any advantages or examples to make your response thorough.
Answer: The access port and the trunk port are two switching ports that have quite different capabilities from one another. One can link network hosts to a single virtual local area network, or VLAN, and only carry that VLAN’s traffic when using an access port. Without VLAN tagging, you can send and receive traffic in native format.
Q.26) What variety of memories does the Cisco router use?
Answer: The various types of memory used are listed below for your reference:
floppy discs: It keeps the IOS for the system. It is a reprogrammable memory chip that can be electronically erased.
RAM: Reserves space for the configuration file currently being used. When a router is shut down or rebooted, its data is lost.
When the router boots up, the startup configuration file is stored in NVRAM, and IOS reads it.
Refers to read-only memory. The data is saved even if the router is turned off or restarted. It keeps the POST diagnostics instructions up to date.
Q.27) What distinguishes static from dynamic IP addresses?
Answer: In contrast to dynamic IP addresses, which change each time you connect to the Internet, static IP addresses do not vary over time and are reserved statically.
Q.28) What does PoE (Power over Ethernet) mean to you?
Answer: The IEEE standard defines it as providing electric power over the existing data connection to network devices.
Q.29) What exactly is OSPF? Explain it.
Answer: OSPF, or Open Shortest Path First, is the acronym. It is a link-state routing protocol that uses the Dijkstra algorithm and can connect to a wide number of networks without having a cap on the number of hops.
Q.30) What distinguishes the user and privileged modes from one another?
Answer: Understanding the user and the privileged mode in networking is based on the concepts of switching and routing. This question can be used by employers to gauge how well you understand both categories of system modes and how they differ. With this query, they can also gauge how well you understand routing and switching. In your response, you might discuss the pertinent variations and provide concrete examples.
Example: “For routine work on a CISCO router, IT pros use user mode. For instance, you can monitor the condition of a router and connect to remote devices using this mode. With the router in privileged mode, we can carry out complex operations like setup and troubleshooting.”
Q.31) Route poisoning: What is it?
Answer: Route poisoning is the process of removing all access to a route by adding a 16-entry table to it. To avoid the issues caused by inconsistent updates on a route, this is done.
Q.32) What is meant by round trip time?
Answer: The time it takes for a signal to deliver data plus the time it takes for the signal’s receiver to acknowledge it is what is known as round-trip time or round-trip delay.
Q.33) What differentiates CSMA/CD from CSMA/CA?
Answer: The media access control technique used in local area networking is called Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). When a collision does occur, it leverages early Ethernet technology to avoid it.
As well as that, CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance).
Q.34) What IP address is a loopback address and why is it used?
Answer: The address for the loopback is answer. 127.0.0.1. A network administrator can consider the local system as a remote machine by assigning it a loopback address, which is a unique IP address. Local testing is another application for it. Any communication sent across the loopback network is directed at the same computer.
Q.35) What route entry will be allocated to a dead or invalid route in the case of RIP?
Answer: In the event of RIP, 16 hops will be attributed to a dead or invalid route.