Page Object Model with Selenium WebDriver in Java

  • By Chetna Malagi
  • June 17, 2024
  • JAVA Programming
Page Object Model with Selenium WebDriver in Java

Page Object Model with Selenium WebDriver in Java

The Page Object Model (POM) is a design pattern commonly used in Selenium WebDriver automation tests. This pattern helps to create a more maintainable and readable test code by encapsulating the web elements and the actions that can be performed on those elements into separate classes. Discover Page Object Model with Selenium WebDriver in Java Streamline your test automation process with reusable and maintainable code. Join SevenMentor Today. Here’s an explanation of the Page Object Model in the context of Selenium WebDriver with Java:



Ensure you have the following setup:

  • Java Development Kit (JDK)
  • Integrated Development Environment (IDE) like IntelliJ IDEA or Eclipse
  • Selenium WebDriver library
  • Test frameworks like JUnit or TestNG


Structure of Page Object Model

  • Page Classes: These classes contain web elements and methods to interact with them.
  • Test Classes: These classes contain the test scripts that use the methods from the page classes to perform actions and assertions.


Key Concepts of Page Object Model

  • Page Classes: In POM, each web page in the application is represented by a corresponding Java class. This class contains locators for the web elements on that page and methods to interact with those elements.


  • Separation of Concerns: By using POM, the test logic (contained in test scripts) is separated from the page structure (contained in page classes). This makes the tests easier to maintain and understand.


  • Reusability: Page classes can be reused across different test cases, reducing redundancy and promoting code reuse.


  • Readability and Maintainability: POM enhances the readability and maintainability of the test code by keeping the structure organized.


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Implementing Page Object Model in Selenium WebDriver with Java

Here’s a step-by-step guide to implementing POM:

Step 1: Add Dependencies

First, make sure you have the necessary dependencies in your pom.xml file if you’re using Maven:

Page Object Model with Selenium WebDriver in Java

Step 2: Create Page Classes

Create Java classes for each page of your application. For example, let’s create a Login Page class:

Page Object Model with Selenium WebDriver in Java

Page Object Model with Selenium WebDriver in Java

Step 3: Write Test Scripts

Create test scripts that utilize the page classes. For example, let’s write a test for logging in:

Page Object Model with Selenium WebDriver in Java

Page Object Model with Selenium WebDriver in Java


Explanation of the Code

  • @FindBy: This annotation is used to locate web elements on the page.
  • PageFactory.initElements: This method initializes the web elements defined with @FindBy.
  • Actions: Methods like enterUsername, enterPassword, and clickLoginButton perform actions on the web elements.


  • @BeforeClass: This method sets up the WebDriver instance and initializes the page class.
  • @Test: This method contains the actual test logic, calling the page class methods to perform actions.
  • @AfterClass: This method cleans up after the test by closing the browser.


Advantages of Using Page Object Model

  1. Separation of Concerns: Test logic is separated from page structure.
  2. Reusability: Page methods can be reused across multiple test cases.
  3. Maintainability: Changes in the UI only require updates in the page classes, not in every test case.
  4. Readability: Test cases are more readable and easier to understand.


Best Practices

  • Use Descriptive Names: Name your page classes and methods descriptively to enhance readability.
  • Avoid Business Logic in Page Classes: Keep the page classes focused on UI interactions. Business logic should reside in the test classes.
  • Utilize Page Factory: Use PageFactory.initElements to initialize web elements.
  • Encapsulate Web Elements: Keep web elements private and provide public methods to interact with them.


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