# Verbal/ Logical Reasoning

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• November 20, 2019
• Placements

# Verbal/ Logical Reasoning

Dear Aspirants, we all know that Verbal/Logical Reasoning is a major portion of the Reasoning Ability Section almost in all bank exams. You can expect at least 7 – 10 questions from this topic in the mains examination. So, it is very necessary to have good command on this topic with the basics of verbal reasoning, in order to solve the questions with ease in any exam.

In this blog, we will discuss each topic of verbal reasoning with its basics and some tips to solve examples of that topic.

Here is the list of the topics under verbal/ logical reasoning.

• Statement and conclusions/ assumption/ argument
• Course of action
• Cause and effect

Let’s now have a look at the approach to solve these topics:

Statement and conclusions/ assumption/ argument

Statement: It is a collection of words that declares certain facts, views, problems or situations.

Hence logically it is a declarative sentence which is either ‘true’ of ‘false’.

Conclusion: A conclusion is a judgment, belief or a final decision that is the result of reasoning a given statement. We can also define the conclusion as a fact that can be truly inferred from the contents of a given sentence.

STATEMENT AND CONCLUSION:

In this section, you will be given a statement followed by some conclusions. Here you will have to analyze the given statement, understand their indirect implications to figure out which conclusion logically follows the given statement.

Following are few typical types of statement conclusion questions:

Type 1: These type of questions have one statement followed by two conclusions and you will have five options to select the correct answer.

The options may be as follows:

• If only conclusion one follows
• If only conclusion one follows
• If either conclusion one or two follows
• If both the conclusion follows
• If neither conclusion one nor two follows

Few examples of type 1 are as follows:

Statement:       Every traveller must carry their passport to the airport.

Conclusion:     i) It is mandatory to carry passport to the airport.

1. ii) Travellers without passport won’t be allowed to enter the airport.

Solution:          Both the conclusions follow.

The usage of “must” in the statement tells us that it is mandatory or compulsory for the travellers to carry passport to the airport.

Statement:       In a report of recent survey, it has been written that those who do physical exercise for at least an hour a day are less prone to have any heart disease.

Conclusions:    i) All the people who do desk bound jobs, definitely suffer from heart disease.

1. ii) For leading a healthy life, moderate level of physical exercise is necessary.

Solution:          Conclusion (ii) follows the statement.

As per the given statement, physical work out for at least an hour is necessary to minimise the risk of heart disease but it does not convey that the people who do desk bound jobs, definitely suffer from the heart disease.

Statement:       A Manager asked five employees to either submit their resignations by the next day or face the termination orders from the service. Three of the employees had submitted their resignations by that evening.

Conclusions:    The next day, remaining employees would also resign.

The Manager would terminate their services next day.

Solution:          Either of the conclusion follows the statement.

As per the statement, the Manager has given the choice to the employees to either submit their resignations else he will terminate them.

Type 2: On statement is given followed by five conclusions in which either only one conclusion will follow the statement or only one conclusion will not follow the statement.

Let’s see few examples of type 2:

1. Which of the following is the conclusion of the statement, “Use herbal colours. They add hour to colour’s life. – An advertisement”?
2. Catchy slogans do not attract people.
3. People like light colours.
• Slogans are used to attract people.
1. People are using more natural things.
2. People like dark colours.

Solution: Slogans used in advertisements are meant to attract people and also tell the benefit of the advertised product. The given statement does not tell anything about people’s choice or about the thing they are using.

1. Which of the following can be concluded from the following statement – “Through interest rate subvention schemes, government of India will provide crop loan to farmers at just 4%.”
2. Financial condition of farmers will improve.
3. Repayment of loan will be done timely by the farmers.
• Small and marginal farmers will be benefited the most from this scheme.
1. Farmers will have to pay less interest on their loan.
2. Only (i) and (iv)

Solution: Only (i) and (iv)

The subvention scheme will lead to reduction in the interest rates. Hence option (iv) directly follows. If the burden of interest will decrease, farmers will prosper. Thus, option (i) can also be concluded.

STATEMENT AND ASSUMPTION:

In ‘Statement and Assumption’ type questions, assumption provides a logical support to given statement. Now before we discuss the pattern and the format of the question, let’s understand few important terms related to the topic.

Assumption: It is a concept, thought or view that is assumed and taken for granted. Generally an assumption is a hidden part of a statement that is not directly explained or explored.

Explicit:  It means something stated in detail and clearly.

Implicit: It means something suggested but not expressed directly.

Nature and format of the questions:

In statement and assumption questions, you will be given a statement followed by two or more assumptions. You need to deal with the given statement of the question and then decide the answer from the given assumptions. You need to arrive at the answer using your logical and critical thinking capabilities. Here you will have five choices to mark your answer which are:

• If only assumption (i) is implicit.
• If only assumption (i) is implicit.
• If either assumption (i) is implicit or (ii) is implicit.
• If neither assumption (i) is implicit nor (ii) is implicit.
• If both the assumptions (i) and (ii) are implicit.

Points to be remembered:

The points discussed below would help you in solving the questions related to Statement and Assumptions.

• The words like each, every, all, only etc. have definite meaning and sense in themselves. Here we always use a positive and generalised assumptions which are applicable in a general sense.
• The words like few, many, more, some etc. have indefinite meaning and sense in themselves. Here we use a positive and generalised assumption which is applicable in a general case.
• It is not always necessary that there is only one assumption for the given statement. Sometimes there are more than one assumptions. In that case you need to extract the hidden assumptions from the statement.

Now let’s understand the topic better with the help of few examples:

Statement:       Opening a library in place ABC will be a wastage.

Assumptions:   i) Inhabitants of place ABC are illiterate.

1. ii) Inhabitants of place ABC are not interested in reading.

Solution:          If neither assumption (i) nor (ii) is implicit.

Here the statement infers only about the place ABC. There is no indication of anything related to inhabitants of that place. In this way, both the given assumptions are independent and treated individually.

Statement:       The Indian Railways has tied up with Tata Consultancy Services to pilot a system to conduct its recruitment exam online, as the country’s largest employer looks to introduce transparency into its operation.

Which of the following assumptions is implicit in the given statement?

1. Government jobs are the ambition of every youth in the country.
2. Corruption is a major issue in railway recruitments.
• Online examinations will reduce corruption and bring transparency.
1. Cheating in examinations will be wiped out.
2. All examinations for major recruitments in the country will be conducted online.

Solution:          Option (iii) is an assumption.

With the implementation of online exam by the railways, the corruption in entrance examinations can be checked and eliminated.

COURSE OF ACTION

Course of action is defined as a step taken to address a problem or a circumstance to improve a situation. In such type of questions, a situation is presented within a statement and some courses of actions are suggested in the same context.

Nature and format of questions:

Questions related to this topic are designed to test the ability of candidate in correctly judging a problem, finding out the cause of a problem and prescribing a suitable course of action.

There are two parts in a question viz. are:

Statement: It presents a problem.

Courses of action: It suggests steps to solve or minimize the particular problem which is presented through the given statement.

Points to remember:

• It either solves or lessens the problem.
• It should be practical.
• It should directly relate to statement.
• It should independently solve the problem.

Now let’s understand the topic better with the help of few examples:

Statement:       A senior government officer has been caught red-handed accepting a bribe in the recruitment process.

Courses of actions:

(i) As he was a senior officer, the government should give him one more chance to rectify his mistake.

(ii) The Government should immediately suspend him and seize all his property. He must also be deprived of pension and other service related benefits.

Solution:          Here none of the courses of action follows.

(i) Doesn’t follow because there cannot be exception in the eyes of the law.

(ii)  Also does not follow because no punitive action is taken without a proper investigations.

Statement:       Every year during monsoon, the condition of most of the roads in the city deteriorates causing immense problem to commuters.

Courses of action:

1. i) The civic body should include a heavy penalty clause while awarding future contracts for road repairs.
2. ii) The civic officials in charge of maintenance of city roads should be asked to explain why the condition of roads worsen every year.

iii) General public should avoid taking their vehicles out during monsoon.

Solution:          1st course of action follows the statement.

By including the clause of penalty in the contract, the contractor will keep it in mind and do his work more carefully.

CAUSE AND EFFECT

Questions related to this topic are asked in order to judge the ability of candidates to analyse a pair of given statements and their correlation.

Nature and format of questions:

In cause and effect questions, two statements are given. One of them is a cause and another is an effect. To solve such type of questions we need to identify the cause and effect separately from the given statements.

1. If statement (i) is a cause and statement (ii) is its effect.
2. If statement (ii) is a cause and statement (i) is its effect.
• If both statements (i) and (ii) are independent causes.
1. If both statement (i) and (ii) are effects of independent causes.
2. If both statement (i) and (ii) are effects of some common cause.

Now let’s understand the topic with the help of few examples:

Statement (i):

Company A sales shampoo in urban areas. It has launched small sachets for penetration into the rural areas.

Statement (ii):

Company A wants to expand its business to rural areas as rural people cannot afford larger packets.

Solution:

Statement (ii) is a cause and statement (i) is its effect.

Statement (i):

A lung cancer is the most hazardous disease in India. It is not necessarily caused due smoking is more dangerous.

Statement (ii):

Government has banned smoking in public and it has been made a punishable offence.

Solution:

Statement (i) is a cause and statement (ii) is its effect.