Server Virtualization and Cloud Computing.
- Virtual Machine (VM) is a software emulation of physical machine.
- Hypervisor is a Virtualization technology.
- Hypervisor is a thin layer of software which works at the top of hardware and beneath the operating system.
- Hypervisor Type -1 (Desktop): -Desktop computer in which already an operating system is present. We need to install Virtualization application like Vmware, Oracle Virtual Box, Hyper-V.
We can create Virtual Machines and install Operating system in Virtual Machines. VM’s use Processor, Hard disk, Ram of physical machines and Firmware (Read only memory) and NIC is virtual. We can create Virtual Hard disk, Virtual NIC card as per hour requirement. These VM’s are connected by Virtual Networks.
Hypervisor Type- 2(Server): – In this type a dedicated servers are used. Like VMWARE ESX server, Hyper-V server, Citrix Xen server. These servers have its own operating system with Hypervisor enabled. Means servers boots by its own operating system (Bare Metal). These servers has much more facilities and functionalities as compare to Type-1 Hypervisor.
These servers are designed to support multiple processors, ram and hard disk. Also thousands of virtual servers are maintained at same time in servers. Live migration of VM is also possible and we can creates clusters of these servers, if one server fails we can use another server and continue with operations. In this server we can create VM of host machine.
NOTE: – In both Hypervisor Type-1 and Hypervisor Type-2 to create VM and enable virtualization, operating system must be of 64 bit, processor must be of 64 bit and processor should support hardware virtualization.
*Intel hardware virtualization technology is Intel-VT
*AMD hardware virtualization technology is AMD-V
Both should be enabled in BIOS (firmware) of Desktop or Server.
In VMWARE these networks are as given below ->
1) Host only -> If we connect VM’s to this network, VM’s can access only VM’s in private network.
2) NAT -> If we connect VM’s to this network, VM’s can access VM’s and also Host machine.
3)Bridge -> If we connect VM’s to this network, VM’s can able to connect VM’s, Host machine and External machines.
Same concept in Hyper-V ->
In Hyper-V there is Virtual Switch. We can create Virtual Switch as per our requirement.
1) Private Virtual Switch: – In this switch if we connect VM’s, VM can access another VM.
2) Internal Virtual Switch:- In this switch if we connect VM’s, VM can access VM and also host machine.
3) External Virtual Switch (Uses Physical NIC card of host machine): – In this switch if we connect VM’s, VM can access another VM, host machine and external network.
If we add new NIC card then we need to connect this NIC with virtual switch as per requirement.
VM Booting: –
Just like Physical machine we can boot VM by CDROM or by ISO image. International Organization of Standardization has given a method of creating software image of bootable CD to install operating system in VMs. These VM’s has virtual firmware (BIOS) in which we can set boot sequence. We can create copy of Virtual hard disk. We can create VM by using existing hard disk.
VM Backup:- In Virtualization a unique backup technology is used ie SNAPSHOT. SNAPSHOT is backup of entire VM. If VM get corrupt then we can restore SNAPSHOT, entire VM with its operating system and application get restored of that machine. Taking backup of VM’s is good practice. We can enable remote desktop settings on VM and access from remote location.
Benefits of Virtual Machine: –
- Consolidate Virtual Servers can be maintained in one Physical Machine.
- Minimizes cost of Hardware, Electricity, Cooling, Space, and Maintenance.
- “Snapshot” a virtualization backup technology can restore VM in few minutes.
Because of that High Availability is possible.
- Virtual machines are idle for software testing and malware analysis.
- Can create Virtual machines as per required hardware, operating system and application.
Cloud Computing –
We can define Cloud computing as internet base service. Virtualization is base of Cloud computing. Let us see how Cloud computing is beneficial –
- On demand Service: The IT consumer chooses when to start and stop using the service, without any direct interaction with the provider of the service.
- Broad network access: The service must be available from many types of devices and over many types of networks (including the Internet).
- Resource pooling: The provider creates a pool of resources (rather than dedicating specific servers for use only by certain consumers) and dynamically allocates resources from that pool for each new request from a consumer.
- Rapid elasticity: To the consumer, the resource pool appears to be unlimited (that is, it expands quickly, so it is called elastic), and the requests for new service are filled quickly.
- Measured service: The provider can measure the usage and report that usage to the consumer, both for transparency and for billing.
Cloud Service Providers-
Cloud services are given by different Cloud service providers. Names of some service providers are as given below-
1) Microsoft – Azure
2) Amazon Web Services – (AWS)
3) Google Cloud
4) Oracle cloud services.
5) IBM services.
7) Sales Force.
Cloud service providers have their own data centers across the world. It is called as regions. A customer can select region as per his requirement. Generally customer selects region which is in his country and near to his location so that data is stored in its own country and latency is also less for accessing resources. Cloud services providers also provide region wise product list, also price calculator so that customer can estimate the cost of product.
Why cloud services are more useful? Let me share an example.
Suppose a company wants to maintain Web hosting server with a Web Application in its premise. Company has to invest in server hardware cost, Operating system cost, Application cost, continuous electricity supply to avoid power outage, two internet connections for avoiding internet disconnection means network outage. Also customer has to hire a System Administrator to manage and maintain server. All these requirement nearly cost around 500000/- rupees.
Instead of maintaining Web Server in premise, if customer selects Cloud service, then he can use Virtual Machine provided by service provider. Customer can select Operating System, Hardware, Application for his Virtual Machine. VM get one private IP address and one Public IP address so that customer can take remote desktop. Customer can access his VM by just connecting to internet by any device like laptop, desktop and mobile phone. Also customer can pay as per usage of VM.
So customer need not have to invest in hardware, operating system, application, electricity, cooling, Maintenance, he need only to pay bill as per usage of VM on monthly basis.
Cloud as a service –
1. Software as a service :-
Best for Applications:-
2. Platform as a service:-
Best for: – Development and Runtime tools and Environment
- Infrastructure as a service:-
Best for: –
- ii) Disk Drives
- iv) Data Center
Apart from this Cloud Service Provider can also give services for maintaining Database, Artificial Intelligence, and Internet of Things. Data storage, DNS.
Types of Clouds services –
1) Public Cloud: – Company or any individual can use resources from Cloud service provider as given above.
2) Private Cloud: – Companies maintaining their own data centres and using resources within organization only.
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