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1) If I create a snapshot for virtual Machine what happens to my virtual hard disk?

Ans: When I create a snapshot , the main hard disk file will become read only and no more writes can be performed on the same disk. At the same time new delta disk will be created and all changes will be written onto this disk.

2) When do the vmem file gets created?

Ans: While creating snapshot if we select option “Snapshot Virtual machine’s memory”, then the vmem file gets created which stores all the contents of virtual machine memory.

3) What is the difference between High Availability and Fault Tolerance? 

Ans: Vsphere HA service can be enabled on cluster level and allows to reduce downtime by restarting VMs on another ESxi host in case of host failure. Whereas FT can be enabled on VMs to assure 100 % uptime for services and applications running in VM.  FT can be enabled only for critical applications.

4) What is the function of the master host in vsphere  HA?

Ans : When we enable HA service on cluster , FDM agent (or HA Agent) gets installed on every host in a cluster. After that master slave election takes place. Out of all host one will become mastre and others will act as slave.

Master monitors the state of slave host. It also monitors state of all powered on machines. If VM  fails it makes sure that it restarts on other host in cluster and similarly if host fails it will restart all VMs on other hosts.

5) What is RDM ?

Ans : RDM stands for Raw Device Mapping. Storage LUN we can directly map to the VM.

5) What does RDM mapping file contains?

Ans : RDM mapping file contains the information about the location and locking state of mapped device.

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6) What are different modes of RDM?

Ans :There are two modes of RDM i.e

Visual compatibility mode and Physical compatibility mode

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7) Does RDM supports HA , DRS?

Ans : Yes.

8) What are Vvols?

Ans : vVols are similar to the virtual disk of machine. vVols are storage entities which are exported to ESXi by storage array. They are collectively grouped as storage containers. With the help of VASA storage systems become aware of virtual machines and their associated vVols.

vVols just appear as volume on storage array. Unlike vmdk guest OS does not read or write into  file.

9) What is linked clone of virtual machine?

Ans : Linked clone is a copy of VM that shares virtual disk with parent VM.

The original VM is called parent.

10) What is full clone of Virtual machine?

Ans : When we create full clone of VM , the cloned machine do not share virtual hard disk of parent rather it can be operated  independently.

11) What is VMKernel adapter ?

Ans : VMKernel adapter is used to assign ip address to ESXi host and we can also enable different services such as replication traffic, provisioning , Vmotion , FT and other services on this adapter.

12) What compatibility version for VM?

Ans : VM compatibility option specify the hardware available to virtual machine which is related to physical hardware available for esxi host.

13) What is Vlockstep stands for?

Ans : In case of fault tolerance primary VM will capture all the events and forward that to secondary VM.

14) Does FT works even if Vcenter goes down?

Ans : Yes. It works. Vcenter is just needed to enable FT. After that primary and secondary VMs coordinate with each other even in the absence of Vcenter.

15) What is MAC address changes and Forged Transmit network policy?

Ans : MAC address change policy allows host to accept data traffic  for changed MAC address. Wherein with Forged transmit policy host will not check source and destination MAC transmitted from VM.

16) What functions are handled by Platform Service Controller?

Ans : Platform Service controller handles following components-

SSO (single sign On ) Authentication Service

Vmware certificate Authority

Licensing Service

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17) Define the ways to deploy Vcenter?

Ans : There are two ways to deploy Vcenter -Embedded and External . On Embedded Vcneter and PSC both gets installed on same system whereas in External Both components can be installed on different systems.

18) What are different Virtual disks types?

Ans : There are two types of virtual disks and they are-

Thick provisioned and dThin Provisioned.

Thick Provisioned virtual disk , physical; space is assigned at the creation of disk

And in thin provisioning physical space is allocated dynamically as per requirement.

19) How network failover detection is done?

Ans : There are two methods that can be used to detect network failover-

Link  status only and

Beacon probing.

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20) How many maximum host can be managed per cluster?

Ans : 64.

21) What is maintenance mode ?

Ans : We can put / place host in maintenance mode if we want to do hardware or software. When host enters  maintenance mode all the running VMs will be migrated to another host either automatically or manually. Or you can simply power off the VMs to bring host to maintenance mode.

22) What happens when we disconnect  managed host?

Ans : When we disconnect the host from Vcenter , it only stops monitoring that host but it won’t remove it from inventory.

23) What happens when we remove managed host?

Ans : When we remove managed host, it will stop all vcenter monitoring of that host. If it is disconnected then it will not remove vcenter agent from it.

24) What is lockdown mode?

Ans : Lockdown mode allow us to secure access to the esxi host by limiting its access through console, dcui, vcenter.

25) What is .vmdk file is about?

Ans : Vmdk file stores the information about virtual disks (characteristics like geometry of disk ) . It is also called as disk descriptor file.

26) What is .vmx file?

Ans : .vmx is virtual machine configuration file which stores configuration information of VM and we can open this file with notepad.

27) What is prerequisite for Vmotion?

Ans : For storing VMs we need to have shared storage. VMkernel port has to be configured to carry vmotion traffic. Each host should have proper license assigned.

28) What is DRS?

Ans : DRS stands for Distributed Resource Scheduler. We can enable this feature on  host or storage cluster. It allows load balancing of resources across the hosts. DRS can be configured to use either of the mode:

Manual DRS – This mode provides VM placement suggestions while powering VMs.

Partially Automated DRS – This mode provides auto placements of VMs and allows recommendations in case of load imbalance.

Fully Automated DRS – VM placements are done automatically in case of load imbalance.

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