What is Hacking

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  • September 15, 2021
  • Ethical Hacking

Hacking in a very general sense means using something in the way it is not intended to be used. For example assume there is an ecommerce website www.xyzShop.com and a person A is able to delete things from person B’s shopping cart. Now deleting products from another person’s cart is an unintended behaviour by the application. This procedure is known as hacking. It is a really basic example of a hack, in real world there are much more dangerous and destructive hacks


Introduction To Kali Linux?

There are many Operating systems in the market and Kali Linux is one such example.What makes it different from other operating systems is that it is used mostly by hackers, penetration testers and security researchers. A question might arise in your brain that what is so special about Kali linux that all the security researchers use it. The answer to this particular question is that it has all the penetration testing and hacking tools are all available at one place and they are pre installed into kali. People need not waste their time installing each tool separately.


How to setup Kali Linux

Setting up kali is similar to setting up any other operating system There are three main methods by which you can run kali linux on your computer. First method is by creating a bootable CD and installing Kali linux as a main operating system in your machine. Second method is to run kali linux as live, it means that every time you need to start over and no data will be saved. Though you can add persistence to save data but it is the least prefered method. The third way is to install kali linux in a VMware/Virtual Box. VMware/Virtual Box is a software that lets you run operating systems by inserting the .iso (disc image) files. It is the best method in my opinion because while creating exploits or doing other hacking related stuff you might infect your Kali linux or for that matter any operating system with virus, so you just need to delete the Virtual Machine and reinstall it again. Other advantage of this method is that you can easily create a lab environment with many different operating system to test upon. Now we will learn how to install Kali linux in a virtual environment. Here I am using VMware but it is up to you to decide to use VMware or Virtual Box.

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WHITE HAT = legal person do legal works no ileegal activity


GRAY HAT= Gray hat hackers works for both purpose


BLACKHAT= Black hat hackers work only illegal 


Blue Hat Hackers : They are also noobs in terms of Hacking.Basically this category of hackers includes those script kiddies whose main aim is to take revenge from a particular individual who makes them angry. They use all the existing hacking tools and

have no desire to learn the depths of Hacking.


Green Hat Hackers : Those Script Kiddies who are eager to learn more about hacking in future and try to gain as much information as they can from whatever source they can are known as Green Hat Hackers.

Red Hat Hackers : These are similar to White hat hackers and are on opposite side of Black hat hackers. They are little different from White hat hackers because they believe that they can take down the Black hat hacker themselves by attacking them and without informing anyone. These hackers can be thought of as aggressive White hat hackers

DNS : It is an abbreviation for Domain Name System. We humans often tend to remember names easily than numbers, hence this system was developed. When we enter www.google.com the web server doesn’t interpret it the same way as us humans, rather it converts this domain name to its respective IP address, this comprises the DNS.


IPv4/IPv6 : IP stands for Internet Protocol. It is assigned to a device in a network so that it can be identified. IPv4 is Internet Protocol version 4 and IPv6 is Internet Protocol version 6. IPv4 looks like x.x.x.x where each x represents an octet, and there are 4 such octets. By octets here we mean 8-bits. Maximum value of 8-bit number is 255 and it would be represented as 11111111 in binary. So IPv4 addresses range from to An IPv4 address is 32-bits long. As each electronic device needs to communicate with other devices so an IP address is assigned to them but as the world is growing so fast and each person has a mobile phone at least, the IPv4 addresses would run out as they are limited. As this was realised there was a need for more IP addresses so IPv6 was designed. It is 128-bits long. It consists of 8 groups of 4 hexadecimals. Each group is separated by a colon( : ). An example of IPv6 can be 2006:0db8:35a3:0000:0000:3a1e:0570:7324. Leading zeros in a group can be removed, example 2006:db8:35a3:0:0:3a1e:570:7324 . If there are one or more groups of zeros consecutively then they can be replaced by double colons ( :: ), example 2006:db8:35a3::3a1e:570:7324 .

Bitcoin Bitcoin is the most popular Cryptocurrency. It is the first decentralized( without any authority to supervise on it) digital currency. It is said that Satoshi Nakamoto created this Bitcoin. No one knows whether it is an individual or a group. Bitcoin is based on Blockchain Technology. It is a ledger that records all the bitcoin transactions. Hackers use this currency to make transactions as these transactions have no higher authority to keep a check on them.

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Nmap It is one of the most widely used tools by hackers. It is an advanced scanner with a lot of functions compared to netdiscover. We would be discussing some main Nmap scans . For more 27 details refer to man page of nmap by typing man nmap on the terminal Burpsuite Burpsuite is one of the best tools available in hacking. It has many functionalities and all can’t be discussed within scope of this book. We will be discussing main use of the Network Proxy – Burpsuite. By default free version of Burpsuite is available in Kali Linux.

Arbitrary File Upload This is a type of vulnerability in which a web app allows a hacker to upload malicious files. These malicious files can be reverse php shells that can take control of the whole server on which the website is hosted. Now imagine a situation where website-A and website-B are hosted on the same server and Website-A is vulnerable to this kind of attack, hence an attacker can gain control of website-B as well. So it is always advised to have a dedicated server rather than a shared server.


Author: Rajpurohit, vinod

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