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  • November 27, 2021
  • Networking


What Is Networking?

Networking is the process of connecting multiple remote or local parameters together.

Type of networking:

In the world we have below three type of networks

  1. LAN
  2. MAN
  3. WAN

1. LAN – Local Area Network, used to connect computers within the building

2. MAN– Metropolitan Area Network, used to connect computers within a city.

3. WAN– Wide Area Network, used to connect computers throughout world.

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Networking Terminology –

Request and response:

An input data sending via network to an application that is running in a remote  computer is called request.

The output coming out from that application back to client program is called response.

Client and client System:

An application that allow us to send request is called client, and the person who is inputting the required data is called end-user , and the  person who pays money to develop that entire project is called customer.

Client System is a computer in which client programs are executed, and on which end-user works.

Server and server system:

Server is set of programs(software) that takes request via network ,process that request, generates response and send it back to client application .

Server system is also a computer that has capability to receive  network calls and handovers those calls to appropriate server software those are installed in that computer.

What is an IP Address and host name?

IP Address, Internet Protocol Address.is an identification number of computer in the network.

Rule: In a network two computers should not contain same IP Address.in this case network will prompt an error message “IP Address conflict”.

Host name is the alias name of computer. As human being we can not remember computers with number . so each computer IP Address is mapped with a string called hostname.

Note: In project it is no recommended to use IP address in sending request ,insted we should use its hostname.

in order to use host name in place of IP Address we should configure server system ip address and hostname in our local system in host file

This file path is “c:\Windows\System32\drivers\ etc “

The mapping placed in this file are called host entries.

  •   Each entry should be kept on an individual line.
  •   The IP address should be placed in the first column followed by the corresponding host name            with t least one space gap.

Example:     MentorIT19     MentorIT20     MentorIT30

Q) How  network can get Address of host name in the request?

A: from hosts file of the local computer

The default IP address of a computer is,and its mapped host name is local host.

Range of the IP Address

0.0.0 to

The entire range is divided into five classes

class A, class B, class C ,class D ,class E

class C range IP Address is used to build LAN ,the range starts with “192.168.-.-“


Below are the DOS commands we use to know  –

IP Address of the computer-ipconfig

Hostname of the computer-hostname

 Sometime computer cannot be connected to work even though network cable is plugged.

In this situation use below command to establish / reestablish the connection with the server system (with network)-“ipconfig/renew”.

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What is a port number?

Port number is an identification number of server software.

it is a 32-bit positive integer number ,having range 0 to 65535.

In a computer how many server can be installed?

N number of server can be installed and all of them can be run at a time  if they have different port number.


Two server can not same  port number (PORT), as they cannot be run at same time . it leads to ambiguous problem for server system in redirecting request.


We can install more than one server with same port number , but we cannot start/use them at a same time. if we start more than one server with same port number or if we start same server  again while it is running, we experience an exception java.net.BindException : Address already use


The port number 0 to 1024 are already registered for public servers. Hence we cannot release new server software with the port number in this range.

What is Protocol?

protocol is a set of instruction to send request and receive response via network.

Type of protocol?

Protocol is a set of instruction to send  request and receive response via network.

Type of protocol – 

There are two type of protocols:

  1. TCP/IP -Transmission Control Protocol//internet Protocol
  2. UDP– User Datagram Protocol

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol//internet Protocol)  is a connection-oriented and secured protocol, for ever request we will get response.

Example : WhatsApp, Instagram, Google Chat  ,iMessage.

UDP( User Datagram Protocol) is connectionless protocol, and  it is non-secure protocol .using this protocol we cannot 

guarantee data transfer.

Example: radio communication ,All online games

TCP/IP  protocol is further divided into four protocol based on type of data we transfer

  1. HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol.
  2. HTTPS – Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure.
  3. FTP -File  Transfer Protocol .
  4. SMPT-Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.


What is URL,URI?

URL is Uniform Resource  locator, which is an absolute path of remote file ,used to locate that file in server.

 It contain protocol, IP Address /host name of server system, Port number of the server resource path and optionally its required input values (called query String).

URI-is uniform Resource identifier is the path of resource in server system.

URL-absolute path of remote file

URI-relative path of remote file

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What is the Socket, Server Socket?

Socket is listener through which computer can receive request and send responses. using this listener actually computer connected to network and communication to other computers.

The listener of client system is called Socket

the listener of server system is called server socket



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