What is the real meaning of these in cyber security :-

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  • August 27, 2021
  • Ethical Hacking

Phases Of Hacking

There are total five phases of Hacking: 

1) Reconnaissance : ​This phase is also known as Information Gathering phase. It is the very first phase in hacking in which the hacker tries to extract all the possible information about his target like targets IP address, Network of the target etc. It can be done actively by directly interacting with the target or passively by indirectly interacting with the target via an intermediary.

2) Scanning : ​This is the second phase of hacking. In this phase the main motive of the hacker is to get more data about the target by using the information gathered during the Reconnaissance phase. Hackers usually use tools like Network Mappers, Port Scanners etc.

3) Gaining Access : ​This is an important step for a hacker as he has to gain access into the system by exploiting the information he gathered during the first two phases. He needs to think of ways of exploiting the services that he might have discovered on open ports of the system during initial phases of information gathering.

4) Maintaining Access : ​In the fourth phase of hacking the hacker needs to be cautious of his actions and should be able to maintain the access that he got on the target computer. The connection should be persistent.

5) Covering Tracks : ​The final and the most important step of hacking is not to get caught by anyone. So in this last phase, the hacker tries to remove all the evidence of his presence in the target machine. He tries to delete all the log files created as a result of his actions on the target computer and tries to make sure that he is untraceable.


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If one has to define cryptography in the simplest language, cryptography is the technology to ensure that whatever communication is taking place between two users is not getting understood by some third person. In modern times there is a dire need of cryptography. A lot of sensitive data exists which needs to be protected. If this data goes into wrong hands then it can cause a lot of damage. Nowadays there are various applications of cryptography. Some being chip-based payment cards, securing passwords, e-commerce, military communication, digital currency etc. cryptography is also a best encryption method for security.

Steganography basically means hiding a valuable and important message behind a photo or audio file so no one can understand the communication going on terrorist used this most time for communication  by sending Bollywood celebrity photos to each other with hiding text behind a photo mask a text file in photo.

  Virus:-  A virus is a very common type of malware. Normally viruses are those computer codes which are attached to other executable files etc. so that they can be executed when the user double clicks on the executable file to which the virus is attached. Virus will not come into action till the user executes the file to which the virus is attached. Virus can not transfer itself from one PC to another automatically, it needs a medium, it can be transferred by USB drive, E-mails etc.


Worms are another kind of malware similar to Virus. However worms differ from viruses because unlike viruses worms can travel in a network without any human aid. They do this by exploiting some already existing vulnerability in the system.They can be more harmful than viruses as they replicate without human intervention thus rate of replication is very high. Worms “eat” files and replicate.

Sometimes worms are so dangerous that we get a message – “



This is a kind of malware that records the keystrokes that are entered by the user from a keyboard on a computer infected by a keylogger.

If you are working on a computer that is infected by a keylogger then all the chats that you’re doing and all the E-mails, passwords that you enter throughout the day are being recorded with the hacker. Mostly all the keyloggers are paid, however there are a few keyloggers that are available for free with less functionality. One such example is revealer keylogger free version.

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Ransomware is a dangerous malware that can encrypt your files and lock your computer. It is used by hackers to exploit the public by infecting their computer systems with ransomware. The hackers demand money from public in order to unlock their computers and decrypt the files stored on the machine. All the ransom that the hacker asks has to be paid in cryptocurrency like bitcoins as there is no one monitoring them. Recently there was a very popular ransomware known as WannaCry. It gave people a limited time to make the payment else their computer will be completely locked. Imagine a situation where a company’s accounts department PC’s are infected with ransomware. It is the worst situation as the PC has a lot of critical information, so the company has to pay the ransom asked by the hacker at any cost. These Ransomware usually spread through malicious links provided by E-mails or messages.

***My Advice*** ​: ​ Always you should backup your system.

You can use cloud services such as google drive and also you can transfer a copy of all your data to a hard disk. These preventive steps need to be taken if you want to be safe from such kind of ransomwares. If you are infected with a ransomware and don’t want to pay money to the hacker so the only way left is to format your computer system completely. Never open links from untrusted sources however urgent the subject of the mail may seem.


Trojans are a very dangerous form of malware. They can come into the system pretending to be a legitimate software but actually they are sent by a hacker to spy on you, get all your personal details from your computer system etc. Trojan is also commonly known as RAT (Remote Administrative Tool). They keep on running in the background without you knowing about them, its main objective is to provide access of your system to the hacker.


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Google Dorks

What is Google Dorking?

Google Dorking is also known as Google Hacking. It is a method of doing advanced searches so that we are provided with only the result we are looking for. For example if you want to search for a PDF and you search for it on google you will get way too many search results, however with google dorking you will be provided only the required PDFs. Hackers often use this technique so that they get only the desired results and rest all the results are filtered out. It also saves their time. There are various google dorks for different works even  google dorks are used to find vulnerability on search engine


Whistle Blowers : ​Those people who expose their companies/organizations by disclosing the secrets or the malpractices followed by the company/organisation they work in, in front of the public are known as whistleblowers. They have easy access to the company’s system as they work there. Hacktivist : ​Those​ ​politically motivated group of people who think they can bring changes in the society and hack into the systems to popularize their agenda are known as Hacktivists. They usually remain anonymous, and mostly government websites are their target.

Author: Rajpurohit, vinod

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