I) Basic Network Troubleshooting
If computer is not connecting to the network what troubleshooting you will do?
- Check the cable is connected properly to NIC card of computer and switch.
- Ping 127.0.0.1 , which shows whether NIC card is sending and receiving IP packets,
If NIC sends and receives IP packets then we come to know that NIC is working fine.
- Check IP address and Subnet mask of computer. IP address should be in same network of LAN with appropriate subnet mask.
- Ping with IP address given to local NIC card, if after ping message comes ‘General failure’ it means NIC drivers are corrupt need to install fresh drivers.
- Open device manager from control panel, select Network Adapter->expand->select NIC card -> right click on NIC and uninstall.
- Right click on console of Device Manager and select ‘scan for hardware change’, system discovers NIC card and installs fresh drivers. Give IP and check connectivity.
- Check a) File and Printer sharing and Turn on Network discovery services and both should be on from Network and Sharing center from change advance sharing settings.
- Check ‘Workstation’ and ‘Server’ services are on from tool ‘Services’ from Windows tools
- Sometime antivirus software has inbuilt firewall and it blocks ICMP protocol, stop antivirus firewall.
- If hostname of two computers are same then one of the two computer does not show in network. Change hostname of any one computer.
- If same IP address is given to two computers then it is IP address conflict and only one computer comes in network among two. Change IP address of any one computer.
- After completing all above troubleshooting still computer does not ping and comes in network then probable NIC is malfunctioning, replace the NIC card with new one.
- Try another switch and check connectivity.
- Check cable continuity by LAN tester and crimp UTP CAT5/6 cable again with RJ-45 connector.
If you ping to computer and gets message ‘Destination host unreachable’ what are the possible reasons?
Answer: i) IP address and subnet mask of destination host may be different.
- ii) Need to crimp cable again or cable problem or switch issue.
If you ping and gets message ‘request time out’ what are the possible reasons?
Answer: i) Network congestion
- ii) Slow bandwidth
iii) Incorrect firewall setting on local computer and might be destination host firewall is
Blocking ICMP request.
iv)Might be destination host is shutdown.
II)Basic Windows Security.
1) User password should be strong.
- i) Password should be more than 8 characters
- ii) Change the password after some specific time period
iii) Do not repeat password
iv)Password should be complex. Password should be with Alphabets, Numeric and Special characters.
- v) Do not keep password by name, nickname, cousin’s name, pet, mobile, dictionary words etc.
vi)Do not share password on email, Whats app chat, SMS etc
2)Windows XP,Vista,Win-7,Win-8,Win-10 has built in Desktop firewall, keep it on.
3) Install Antivirus with internet security. Update antivirus regularly.
4) Windows has built in antispyware and antivirus ie Windows Defender, always update it. From Windows-10 Defender you can enable following settings
i)Windows Defender Smart Screen
ii)Windows Defender Application Guard
iii)Windows Defender Exploit Guard
iv)Windows Defender Credential Guard.
5) Download and Install Operating system and Application updates regularly.
OS updates are three types.
- ii) Critical updates.
iii) Security updates.
6) Use browser with security features like-
i)In-Private browsing in Internet Explorer, and Incognito mode in Google Chrome.
This feature block tracking when you browse internet.
- ii) Clear history and Cashes.
iii) Turn-off features like ‘Autocomplete’ from browser like in internet explorer.
7) Download free Microsoft tool ‘Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer’ and install.
This tool scan your computer and generates report. In report there is detail information about
i)Number of users.
- ii) Number of Administrator users
iii) How many user have password and when these passwords are going to be expired.
iv)Operating System is updated or not
- v) Checks whether antivirus is installed and updated or not
- vi) Checks whether Web Browser is secured or not and other security information. It is very useful utility provided by Microsoft to check security settings of Operating System.
vii) We can scan single computer also all the computers in LAN.
8) Bit locker Device Encryption
In this topic we get information about how we can protect data by Using Bitlocker Device Encryption computer running Windows.
If you have an important Personal data, Project related data of your company and you want to protect data from unauthorized access, If you are travelling and lost your device and do not want to compromise with confidential data then Bitlocker Device Encryption provide solution for the same. Bitlocker Device Encryption can encrypt entire hard drives like system drives and data drives and you can set password whenever you want to access it.
9) Set user account control policy,
if administrator has logged on and because of some reason administrator is away from his desk then any one can access and make changes in system to avoid unauthorized access set policies given below from Windows Administrative Tools -> Local Security Policy -> Local policy ->Security options.
1 ) User Account control : Admin Approval Mode for built-in Administrative account.
Enable this policy.
2) User Account control: Behavior of the elevation prompt for administrators in Admin approval mode.
Select “Prompt for credentials on secure desktop.”
- User Account Control: Switch to Security desktop when prompting for elevation.
- User Account Control: Detect Application Installation and prompt for elevation.
By setting above policies unauthorized person cannot make system wide changes when administrator is away from his computer because when any unauthorized person try to make any changes desktop will get locked and unless person provide administrator’s password he cannot access any desktop tool, file folder and open any application and any other windows tools.
10) Set parental control.
- i) Choose web site which your kids can visit when kids use Microsoft Edge.
- ii) Set the time period when kids can use device
iii) Get weekly online activity report of your kid.
- iv) Choose what should your kid see and purchase from online shopping.
11) To protect the access of system, administrator can also set some policies like –
1) Restrict access for USB devices like Pen drive, USB hard disk, CD/DVD drive.
2) Disable remote access.
3) Restrict to download from internet and upload to Internet.
4) For server and printer set smart card access.
5) Disable Windows 10 automatic login.
6) Set password on Screen saver.
12) Set Audit policies as given below to track and monitor.
- i) Audit account logon event.
- ii) Audit account management.
iii)Audit directory service access.
iv)Audit logon events
- v) Audit policy change
vi)Audit object access.
vii)Audit privilege use.
viii)Audit process tracking.
- ix) Audit system events.
Administrator can monitor all the events related to above policies in event viewer->windows logs->Security logs.
13) User can encrypt the content of folder so that no other user can access the contents.
Select your data folder -> Right click -> Properties -> General -> Advance ->Select
Check box of ‘Encrypt Contents to Security Data’
When other user log on cannot access folder encrypted by user1
14) Take the Image backup from control panel.
It is a kind of bare-metal backup which takes the backup of entire C: drive. This backup is useful when Operating System corrupts or if ‘Ransom ware’ attack happens then user can restore Operating System and data of C:
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