• By
  • July 4, 2022
  • Cyber Security



What is computer forensics?

Computer forensics is the use of investigations and analytical techniques to collect and store evidence from a particular computer system in a manner appropriate to be presented in a court of law. The purpose of computer forensics is to conduct a systematic investigation and to maintain a series of written evidence to determine exactly what happened to the computer machine and who did it.

Computer forensics – sometimes called computer forensic science – is actually the acquisition of data through compliance guidelines so that information is acceptable in legal proceedings. The terms digital forensics and cyber forensics are often used as synonymous with computer forensics.

Digital forensics begins with the collection of information in a way that maintains its integrity. Investigators then analyzed the data or system to determine if it had been altered, or changed and who made the changes. The use of computer forensics is not always linked to the crime. The forensic process is also used as part of data recovery processes to collect data from a broken server, a failed drive, a restructured operating system (OS), or another situation in which a system abruptly stops working.


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Why is computer forensics so important?

In a system of social justice and crime, computer forensics helps ensure the integrity of digital evidence presented in court cases. As computers and other data collection devices are frequently used in all walks of life, digital evidence – as well as the intelligence system used to collect, secure, and investigate – has become increasingly important in solving crime and other legal issues.

The average person never sees a lot of information collected by modern technology. For example, computers in automobiles constantly collect information about when the driver brakes, shifts, and changes speed without the driver knowing. However, this information can be considered critical in solving legal or criminal issues, and computer forensics often play a role in identifying and storing such information.

Digital evidence is not just a tool to solve digital world crimes, such as data theft, cybercrime, and cybercrime. It is also used to solve international crimes, such as burglary, assault, collision and flight, and murder.

Businesses often use multi-layer data management, data management, and network security strategy to keep proprietary information secure. Having well-managed and secure data can help plan the forensic process should that data be investigated.

Businesses also use computer forensics to track system-related information or network vulnerabilities, which can be used to identify and prosecute cyber attackers. Businesses can also use digital forensic experts and processes to assist them with data recovery in the event of a system or network failure caused by a natural or another disaster.


Types of computer forensics

There are several types of computer forensic tests. Each is related to a specific aspect of information technology. Some of the main types include the following:

  • Database forensics. Content testing is on a website, both data and related metadata.
  • Email forensics. Receipt and analysis of emails and other information contained in email forums, such as schedules and contacts.
  • Computer programming forensics. Filter code to identify potential malicious programs and analyze their paid load. Such programs may include Trojan horses, ransomware, or various viruses.


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The most common types of computer malware attacks

1) Adware:

Adware provides unwanted or malicious advertising. Although relatively safe, it can be annoying as “spam” ads continue to appear while you are working, severely compromising your computer performance. Additionally, these ads may lead users to download some of the most dangerous types of malware.

To protect the adware, be sure to keep your operating system, web browser, and email client updated so that they can block known adware attacks before they can download and install.

2) Fileless Malware:

Unlike a standard malware program, which uses usable files to infect devices, a malware program does not directly affect files or file systems. Instead, this type of malware program uses non-file files such as Microsoft Office macros, PowerShell, WMI, and other system tools. A notable example of a malicious malware attack was Operation Cobalt Kitty, in which OceanLotus Group infiltrated a number of companies and operated secretly for about six months before it was discovered.

Because there is no usable file, it is difficult for anti-virus software to protect against malware-free software. To protect against this, make sure that users have only the rights and privileges they need to perform their functions. This will help prevent cybercriminals from using malicious software to access employee information and access restricted data. Additionally, disable Windows applications such as PowerShell for users who do not need them.

4) Worms:

Like a virus, the worm can spread itself on other tools or programs. However, the caterpillar does not infect other systems. Worms often move after known actions. Therefore, in order to protect yourself from worms, you should make sure that the entire device is updated with the latest episodes. Firewalls and email filters will also help you detect suspicious files or links that may be infected.

5) Trojans:

The trojan system pretends to be legal, but it is actually cruel. A trojan cannot spread by itself as a virus or a worm, but rather it must be killed by its victim. Trojan usually logs in to your network via email or is pushed to users as a link to a website. Because trojans rely on social engineering to make users spread and download, it can be very difficult to fight.

The easiest way to protect yourself from trojans is to never download or install a piece of software from an unknown source. Instead, make sure employees download software only from reputable developers and app stores that you already authorize.

7) Ransomware:

Ransomware Attack encrypts device data and holds it for ransom until a criminal is paid to release it. If the ransom is not paid by the deadline, the criminal may threaten to remove the data — or at least disclose it. Paying may help; often, victims lose their data even if they pay a fee. Ransomware attacks are one of the most important types of malware in the media because of their impact on hospitals, communications firms, railway networks, and government offices. A good example is a WannaCry attack which has shut down hundreds of thousands of devices in more than 150 countries.

In addition to updating and training staff on the best online hygiene practices to prevent them from clicking malicious links, create regular non-existent copies in a secure area outside the site. This will allow you to restore your systems faster without paying a ransom.


Cybercriminal hackers use spyware to monitor users’ activities. By entering user login keys throughout the day, the malware may provide access to usernames, passwords, and personal data.

Like any other malware, anti-virus software can help you detect and eliminate spyware. You can also use non-tracking browser extensions to keep spyware from tracking your users from one site to another. For More Visit Ethical Hacking Classes in Pune


  • Memory forensics. Collects information stored in random computer access memory (RAM) and cache.
  • Mobile forensics. Mobile testing to retrieve and analyze content information, including contacts, incoming, and outgoing text messages, photos, and video files.
  • Network Forensics. Seeking evidence by monitoring network traffic, using tools such as a firewall or access system


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How does computer forensics work?

Forensic investigators usually follow standard procedures, which vary depending on the context of the forensic investigation, the investigative device, or the information investigators seek. Generally, these procedures include the following three steps:


  1. Data collection:
     Information stored electronically must be collected in a manner that maintains its integrity. This usually involves physically separating the device under investigation to ensure that it will not be accidentally contaminated or damaged. The inspectors made a digital copy, also called a forensic image, of the device’s storage media, and then locked the original device in a safe or secure location to keep it in good condition. The investigation is being done with a digital copy. In some cases, the publicly available information may be used for research purposes, such as Facebook posts or Venmo public costs for purchasing illegal products or services featured on the Vice website.
  2. Analysis:
     Investigators are analyzing digital copies of storage media in a sterile environment in order to collect case information. A variety of tools are used to assist in this process, including Basis Technology’s Autopsy for hard drive diagnostics and the Wireshark network protocol analyzer. The mouse jiggler is useful when scanning a computer for sleep apnea and for losing flexible memory data that is lost when the computer is asleep or running out.
  3. Presenting:
    Intelligence investigators present their findings at the trial, which the judge or magistrate uses to help determine the outcome of the case. In the case of data acquisition, forensic investigators present what they were able to find in the endangered system.



Rajat Sharma

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