(Manual Testing)

1) What is the difference between the software testing and QA?

Ans-The software testing, is the process of ensuring the functionality of final product meets the user’s requirement While The role of QA (Quality Assurance) is to monitor the quality of the “process” used to produce the software.

2) What is a Defect?

Ans-The variation between the actual results and expected results is called as a defect. If a developer finds some issue and corrects it on development phase then it’s called a defect. In other word error found by tester is called Defect. Defect is the difference between expected and actual result in the context of software testing.

3) What is a Bug?

Ans-When defect accepted by development team then it is called Bug,

If testers find any mismatch in the application in testing phase then they call it as Bug.

4) What is an Error?

Ans-A mistake in coding is called Error .We can’t  run a program due to a coding mistake in a program. If a developer unable to successfully compile a program then they call it as an error.

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5) What is a Failure?

Ans-When Build (software) does not meet the requirements then it Is Failure.

Once the product is deployed to the customers find any issues then they call the product as a failure product. After release, if an end user (client) finds an issue then that particular issue is called as a failure.

6) What are verification and validation?

Ans-Verification is a process of execute software at the development phase. It helps  to decide whether the product of a given application satisfies the actual requirements.

Validation is the process of execute software at the after the development process and to check whether it match the customer requirements.

7)what is the difference between system testing and user acceptance testing(UAT) ?

Ans-UAT: User Acceptance is performed by the Client to certify the system with respect to the requirements . The main purpose of this testing is to validate the end to end business flow (requirement).

System testing: system testing is finding defects when the system undergoes test. In this  a level of software testing where a complete software is being tested. The purpose of this test is to evaluate the system’s compliance with the specified requirements; it is also known as end-to-end testing.8) Difference between test scenarios, test cases, and test script?

Test Scenarios: A Test Scenario is any functionality that can be tested  or In other word it is a possible way to execute test cases.

Test Cases: It contains  a document that the steps that have to be executed. in other word it has been planned earlier.

Test Script: It is a programming language and it’s a short program used to test unit  part of the functionality of the software .

9)What is Static Testing?

Ans-It involves in reviewing the documents to identify the defects in the early stages of SDLC.software testing

10) What is Dynamic Testing?

Ans-It involves in the execution of code. that validates the output with the expected outcome.

11) What is White Box Testing?

Ans-White Box Testing is also called as  Clear Box,  Glass Box and Structural Testing. It is based on internal code structure of an application. In this testing, an internal perspective of the system, and programming skills, are used to design test cases. This type of testing usually done at the unit level (basic level).

12) What is Black Box Testing?

Ans-In this Testing is a software testing method in which testers evaluate the functionality of the application under test without looking at the internal code structure. It can be applied to every level of software testing such as Unit, Integration, System and Acceptance Testing.

13) What is Grey Box Testing?

Ans-It is a combination of both  Black Box Testing and White Box testing.  It has a partial knowledge of both Black Box Testing and White Box testing. The tester who works on this type of testing needs to have knowledge of design documents parts.

14) What is Exploratory Testing?

Ans-This process will be carried out by experts team. They perform testing  by exploring the functionalities of the application without having the knowledge of the requirements.

15) What is Monkey Testing?

Ans-Perform abnormal action on the application deliberately in order to verify the stability of the application.

Monkey testing is a technique where the user tests the application/software by providing random inputs and checking the behavior of application.(or try to crash the application).

16) What is Usability Testing?

Ans-In Usability Testing verify we test whether the application is user-friendly or not and was comfortably to the end user or not. The main purpose in this testing is to check whether the end user can understand the application easily or not.

17) What is Performance Testing?

Ans-This type of testing determines or validates the speed, scalability, and/or stability characteristics of the system or application under test.performance testing is a type of testing for determining the speed of a computer, network or device. It checks the performance of the components of a system by passing different parameters in different load scenarios.

18) What is Load Testing?

Load testing is used to verify that the system/application can handle with expected number of transaction and to verify the application behavior under both normal and peak load conditions. It checks how the application behaves during normal and high loads.

19) What is Volume Testing?

Ans- In Volume testing , the software is subjected to a huge volume of data.  It is also called to as flood testing.

20) What is Stress Testing?

Here verify the behavior of the system once the load increases more than its design expectations. Stress testing aims to ensure that under a sudden high load for a considerable duration the servers don’t crash.

Stress testing is a type of testing that determines the stability and robustness of the system. It is a non-functional testing technique.

21)What is Early Testing?

Ans-Testing should start as early as possible in the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). So that any defects in the requirements or design phase are captured in early stages to reduce cost and time.

22) What is Defect clustering?

Ans-Defect clustering in software testing means that a small (20%) module or functionality contains most (80%) of the bugs or it has the most operational failures.

23). What is Pesticide Paradox?

Ans-In Pesticide Paradox the process of repeating the same test cases, again and again, eventually, the same test cases will no longer find new bugs. So to overcome this Problem, it is necessary to review the test cases regularly and add or update them to find more defects.

24) What is SDLC?

Ans-The Software Development Life cycle is a systematic process for building application that verify the quality and correctness of the software built. also it is the process used by the software industry to design, develop and test high quality software.

SDLC aims to produce a high-quality system that meets customer expectations.

25) What is STLC?

Ans-STLC (Software Testing Life Cycle) identifies what test activities to carry out and when to close those test activities. Even though testing differs between Organization.

In STLC process, different activities are carried  out to improve the quality of the product.

26)What is RTM?

Ans- Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM) is used to trace the requirements to the tests that are needed to verify whether the requirements are fulfilled or not. RTM is the mapping between Test cases and actual requirement.

27)What is Quality Assurance?

Ans- Quality assurance is a process driven approach which checks if the process of developing the product is correct and conforming to all the standards requirement or not . It is considered as a preventive measure or(process) .It involves activities like document review, walkthroughs, inspection etc.

28)What is Quality Control?

Ans- Quality control is product driven approach which checks that the developed product conforms to all the specified requirements. It is considered as a corrective measure. It involves different types of testing like functional testing, performance testing, regression testing etc.

30) What is Equivalence class Partitioning?

Ans- Equivalence class partitioning  is a form of black box testing where input data is being divided into different data classes. This process is done in order to reduce the number of test case and time, but still covering the maximum requirement.

Equivalence class partitioning technique is applied where input data values can be divided into ranges. The range of the input values in Equivalence class partitioning is defined in such a way that only one condition from each range partition is to be tested .

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31) What is Explain Boundary Value Analysis.?

Ans- Boundary value analysis (BVA) method checks the boundary values of Equivalence class partitions. Boundary value analysis is testing technique which identifies the errors at the boundaries rather than within the range.

32)Explain what is Severity in testing?

Ans- Defect Severity is defined by the level or the degree of impact by the defect on the application which going to test. Higher the severity of the defect, the more is the impact on the software.

Following are the 4 classes in which a severity is categorized:





33)Explain what is Priority in testing?

Ans- Defect priority defines the order in which the defect should be resolved first i.e. the higher the priority of the defect implies that the application is unusable or stuck at some point and the defect should be resolved as soon as possible.

Following are the 3 classes in which  priority is defined:




34)What is Smoke testing?

Ans-  In Smoke testing , Tester usually tests for the critical path and not the functionality, whether the build is to be accepted for further testing or to be rejected in case of broken application.

In smoke testing we have to test stability of application, that how much your software is stable.

35) What do you understand by Sanity testing?

Ans- Sanity testing is performed after receiving the build to check the new functionality to be fixed .Main purpose of this sanity testing is to check the functionality strictly as expected and determine whether the bug is fixed and also the effect of the fixed bug on the application under test.

36) What is Positive Testing?

Positive testing, that can be performed on the system by providing the valid data as input. It verifies whether an application behaves as expected with positive or valid inputs.

37) What is Negative Testing?

Ans- Negative Testing , that can be performed on the system by providing invalid data as input. It verifies whether an application behaves as expected with the negative or invalid inputs.

38)What is Unit Testing?

Unit Testing is also called as Component Testing. It is done to check whether the individual unit is working properly. It is done by the developers as well as tester in the developer’s environment.

39) What is Integration Testing?

Ans- Integration Testing is the process of testing the interface between the two software units (ex. UI + DB ). Integration testing is done by four ways. Big Bang Approach, Top-Down Approach, Bottom-Up Approach

40)What is System Testing?

Ans- Testing the fully integrated application to calculate the system’s beheviour with its specified requirements is called System Testing or End to End testing. in System Testing Verifying the completed system to ensure that the application works as expected or not.

41)What is Big Bang Approach?

Ans- In Big Bang Approach, we Combining all the modules once and verifying the functionality after completion of individual module testing.

Bottom up and Top down  are carried out by using dummy modules known as Drivers and Stubs. These Stubs and Drivers are used for for missing components to gathered data communication between modules.

42) What is Top-Down Approach?

Ans- Testing takes place from top to bottom. High-level modules are tested first and then low-level modules and finally integrating the low-level modules to a high level to validate the system is working as intended. Stubs are used as a temporary module or dummy module( if a module is not ready for integration testing).

43)What is Bottom-Up Approach?

Ans- It is a reciprocate of the Top-Down Approach. Testing takes place from bottom to up. Lowest level modules are tested first and then high-level modules and finally integrating the high-level modules to a low level to verify the system is working as intended.  Drivers are used as a dummy module for integration testing.

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(Automation Testing)

1) What is Automation Testing?

Ans- Automation testing  is a process of automating the manual process to test the application. Automation testing involves the use of a individual testing tool which helps you create test scripts which can be executed repeatedly and doesn’t require any manual intervention.

2) What are the benefits of Automation Testing?


Supports execution of repeated test cases

Aids in testing a large test matrix

Enables parallel execution

Encourages unattended execution

Improves accuracy thereby reducing human-generated errors

3) What is Selenium? What are the different Selenium components?

Ans- Selenium is one of the important automated testing suites. It is designed in a way to support and encourage automation testing of functional aspects of web-based applications. selenium is categories on open source community, it has become one of the most accepted tools amongst the testing professionals.

4)  Selenium support which type of testing??


Selenium supports the following types of testing:

Functional Testing

Regression Testing

5) What are the limitations of Selenium?


Selenium supports testing of only web-based applications

Mobile applications cannot be tested using Selenium

Barcode and Captcha readers cannot be possible in Selenium

Reports can only be generated using framework like TestNG or JUnit.

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6)What is Selenium IDE?

Ans- Selenium IDE stands for Integrated Development Environment. It is a Firefox plugin. It is the simplest framework in the Selenium tool. It allows us to record and playback the scripts. Even  we can create scripts using Selenium IDE, we need to use Selenium RC or Selenium WebDriver to write more advanced test cases.

Ans- 7)What is Selenese?

Selenese is the language which is used to write test scripts in Selenium . selenese tell selenium what to do.

8)What is Selenium RC?

Ans- Selenium Remote control / Selenium 1. Selenium RC  was the main Selenium project for a long time before the WebDriver merge brought up Selenium 2. Selenium 1 is still actively supported . It relies on JavaScript for automation. It supports Java, , PHP, Python, Perl , Javascript, Ruby and C#. It supports almost every browser out there.

9) What is Selenium WebDriver?

Ans- Selenium WebDriver or Selenium 2 is a browser automation framework that accepts commands and sends them to a browser. It is implemented through a browser-specific driver. It controls the browser by directly communication. Selenium WebDriver supports Java, Perl, Ruby ,C#, PHP, Python.

10) What is Selenium Grid?

Ans- Selenium Grid is one of the component of selenium which run tests on different machines against different browsers in parallel. That is, running multiple tests at the same time on different machines with different browsers and operating systems (OS).

In simple words, Grid is used to distribute your test execution on multiple platforms and environments simultaneously .

11) What is the difference between assert and verify commands?

Ans- Assert: Assert command checks whether the given condition(code of line) is true or false. If the condition is true then the program control will execute the next test step of line but if the condition is false, the execution will stop and no further test would be executed.

When an “assert” command fails, the test execution will be aborted. So when the Assertion fails, all the test steps after that line of code are skipped.

Verify: Verify command also checks whether the given condition or code of line is true or false.  Any failure during verification would not stop the execution and all the rest of the code would be executed.

The Verify command is generally used to check non-critical things.

Note:- Assert and Verify commands are used to find whether a given element is present or not on the webpage.

12) How many types waits available in WebDriver?

Ans- Two types of waits available in WebDriver as follows:

Implicit Wait

Explicit Wait

Implicit Wait: Implicit waits are used to provide a default waiting time (say 30 seconds) between each consecutive test step across the all test script. In other word, The implicit wait will tell to the web driver to wait for certain amount of time before it throws an error massage “No Such Element Exception”.

Explicit Wait: Explicit waits are used to halt the execution till the time a particular condition is met.The explicit wait is used to tell the Web Driver to wait for certain conditions (Expected Conditions) before throwing an “ElementNotVisibleException” exception.

13) What are the challenges and limitations of Selenium WebDriver?

Ans- Selenium WebDriver is a tool which automates the browser in real user actions on the web. Selenium is a free open source testing tool. Some  challenges  are as follows

We cannot test windows application

We cannot test mobile apps

Limited reporting

Handling dynamic Elements

Handling page load

Handling pop up windows

Handling captcha

14) What is a Framework?

Ans- A framework is set of rules or methods which we can follow in a systematic way to achieve the expected results. There are different types of automation frameworks named as:

Data Driven Testing Framework

Keyword Driven Testing Framework

Hybrid Testing Framework

15) How can you find if an element in displayed on the screen?

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Ans- WebDriver provides some following methods to check the visibility of the web elements. These web elements can be  checkboxes, radio buttons , buttons, drop boxes, labels etc.




16) What are the Open-source Frameworks supported by Selenium WebDriver?



17) What are the Locators available in Selenium?

Ans-  Selenium 8 different types of locators:

  1. ID –
  2. ClassName
  3. Name –
  4. TagName
  5. LinkText –
  6. PartialLinkText –
  7. XPath –
  8. CSS Selector

18)What is the difference between “/” and “//”

Ans- Single Slash “/” – It used to create XPath with absolute path i.e. the XPath would be created to start selection from the HTML document node.

Double Slash “//” – It is used to create XPath with relative path i.e. the XPath would be created to start selection from anywhere within the document code.

19)How can we get a text of a web element?

Ans- Get command is used to find the inner text of the specified web element. The command returns a string value. It is  used  for verification of messages, labels, errors etc displayed on the web pages.


String Text = driver.findElement(By.id(“Text”)).getText();

20) How to select value in a dropdown?

Ans- The value in the dropdown can be selected using WebDriver’s Select class.



Select selectByValue = new Select(driver.findElement(By.id(“SelectID_One”)));



Select selectByVisibleText = new Select (driver.findElement(By.id(“SelectID_Two”)));



Select selectByIndex = new Select(driver.findElement(By.id(“SelectID_Three”)));


21) What are the different types of navigation commands?






22)How to handle frame in WebDriver?

Ans- An frame acronym as iframe is used to insert another document within the current HTML document or simply a web page into a web page by enabling nesting.

Select iframe by id

driver.switchTo().frame(“ID of the frame“);

Locating iframe using tagName


Locating iframe using index



frame(Name of Frame)

driver.switchTo().frame(“name of the frame”);

frame(WebElement element)

Select Parent Window


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23) When do we use findElement() and findElements()?

Ans- findElement(): findElement() is used to find the first element in the current web page matching to the specified locator value.

Note:- note that only first matching element would be stored.


WebElement element = driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));

findElements(): findElements() is used to find all the elements in the current web page matching to the specified locator value.

Note : all the matching elements would be stored in the list of WebElements.


List <WebElement> elementList = driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));

24) What is the difference between driver.quit() and  driver.close()  command?

Ans- close(): WebDriver’s close() method closes the web browser window that the user is currently working on or we can also say the window that is being currently accessed by the WebDriver. The command does not requires any parameter and it return any value.

quit(): Unlike close() method, quit() method closes down all the windows that the program has opened.

25)How can we handle web-based pop-up?

WebDriver offers different types of command to handle these pop-ups using Alert interface. There are the four methods that we would be pop-up.

void dismiss() – This method clicks on the “Cancel” button as soon as the pop-up window appears.

void accept() – This method method clicks on the “Ok” button as soon as the pop-up window appears.

String getText() – This method method returns the text displayed on the alert box.

void sendKeys(String stringToSend) – The sendKeys() method enters the specified string pattern into the alert box.

26) Mention 5 different exceptions you had in Selenium web driver?

Ans- Following are  5 different exceptions  in Selenium web drivers are






27)Explain using Webdriver how you can perform double click ?

Ans- You can perform double click by using

Syntax- Actions act = new Actions (driver);


28)What is the difference between getWindowhandles() and getwindowhandle()?

Ans- getwindowhandles(): It is used to get the address of all the windows which are open in browser and its return type is Set<String>

getwindowhandle(): It is used to get the address of the current browser where the control is and return type is string

29) Explain how you can switch back from a frame?

Ans- To switch back from a frame use method defaultContent()


30)What is Selenese and what are the types of Selenese ?


Selenese is a selenium set of command which are used for running the test

There are three types of Selenese

Actions: It is used for performing the operations and interactions with the target elements on the webpage.

Assertions: It is used as a check points

Accessors: It is used for storing the values in a variable

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31)How to take screenshots in Selenium WebDriver?

Ans- You can take a screenshot by using the TakeScreenshot() function. By using getScreenshotAs() method/ command you can save that screenshot.


File scrFile = ((TakeScreenshot)driver).getScreenshotAs(outputType.FILE);

32)Mention what is Listeners in Selenium WebDriver?

Ans- In Selenium WebDriver, Listeners is an event that defined in the selenium script and behave accordingly. It allows customizing TestNG reports or logs. There are two main listeners i.e. WebDriver Listeners and TestNG Listeners. 33)How to send ALT/SHIFT/CONTROL key in Selenium WebDriver?

When we  use ALT/SHIFT/CONTROL keys, we hold onto those keys and click  buttons to purform the special functionality. So it is not enough just to specify keys.ALT or keys.SHIFT or keys.CONTROL functions.

34)Can we enter text without using sendKeys()?

Ans- Yes. We can enter text without using sendKeys() method/ command. We can do it using JavaScriptExecutor.

35)What is the difference between driver.get() and driver.navigate.to(“url”)?

Ans- driver.get(): To open an URL and it will wait till the  page gets loaded

driver.navigate.to(): To navigate to an URL and It will not wait till the whole page gets loaded

36)How to delete cookies in Selenium?

Ans- To delete cookies we use deleteAllCookies() method

37)List some scenarios which we cannot automate using Selenium WebDriver?


  1. Comparison of Bitmap is not possible using Selenium WebDriver
  2. We cannot Automating Captcha using Selenium WebDriver
  3. We can not read bar code using Selenium WebDriver

38)What is Object Repository in Selenium WebDriver?

Ans- Object Repository is used to store element unique values in a centralized location instead of hard coding them within the scripts. We do create a property file (.properties) to store all the element locators and these property files act as an object repository in Selenium WebDriver.

39)What is the difference between Page Object Model (POM) and Page Factory?

Ans- Page Object is a class that represents a web page and store the functionality and members.

Page Factory is a way to initialize the web elements you want to interact with within the page object.

40)How to connect a Database in selenium?

Ans-  Selenium WebDriver is a tool to automate User Interface/Browser. We could only interact with Browser using Selenium WebDriver component.

Using JDBC Driver to connect the Database in Selenium (While using Java Programming Language).

41)How To Perform Right Click Action (Context Click) In Selenium WebDriver?

Ans- Selenium provides, Actions class in Selenium WebDriver to perform Right-Click (Context Click) action.

42)What is TestNG?

Ans- TestNG is a testing framework designed to simplify a broad range of testing needs, from unit testing to integration testing.

43) What are the annotations available in TestNG?

Ans- @BeforeTest











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