• By
  • April 4, 2022
  • Cyber Security



  1. What is Malware
  2. What is Viruses, Worms and Trojans
  3. Types of Trojans
  4. Ransomeware
  5. protection




Software that is specifically designed to disrupt, damage or gain unauthorized access to a computer system. Read more at Ethical Hacking Course in Pune

1 Virus:

Virus, critical information resource under siege, is a piece of code that is Intended for malicious purpose. it can repeat itself in the same system or Even on an external hard drive. It can harm your system by deleting important information from your hard drive or by corrupting operating system files.


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There are generally 3 main classes of viruses –

1.File Infectors:  Some Files COM or .EXE Infectors Virus attaches itself to program files, usually selected .EXE files. When the program loads, there is a virus also loaded.


2. Macrovirus: These are among the most common viruses, and have a tendency to Do the least damage. Macro viruses infect your Microsoft Word applications and generally insert unwanted words or phrases.


3.System or Boot Record Infectors: These viruses infect executable code Found in some system sectors on the disk. they connect to the dos boot sector diskette or master boot record on the hard disk. when your operating system Running, files on the diskette can be read without triggering the boot disk virus. However, if you drop the diskette into the drive, and then turn off the computer or Reload the operating system, the computer will first appear in your A drive, search for Diskette Your Boot Disk With Virus, Load It, And Make It Temporarily Impossible Use your hard disk.


4. WORMS:  Worms are viruses that replicate themselves by sending themselves as e-mails As an attachment or part of a network message. Worms don’t change files, but  Remains in active memory and duplicates itself. Insects a. use parts of Operating systems that are automated and usually invisible to the user.


5. TROJAN: Trojan is piece of code which is for remote administration purpose. This may or may not harm your computer, but hackers can administer your computer computer remotely. A hacker can view a webcam, get logs of the entire Keystroke and can also delete any file and folder from your system. Trojans are one One of the most dangerous and latest ways for hackers to enter system.


Types of Trojans

Trojans can be classified into 2 types.

  1. Direct Connection Trojan –

Direct connection Trojan, the victim’s IP address plays an essential role. Hacker Sends Trojans to the victim, the victim unknowingly executes them. to get remote connection For the victim’s computer the hacker must have the victim’s IP address. hacker uses Various methods of getting the IP address of the victims like,

  •  Email Tracing
  •  IP grabbing
  •  Social engineering


  1. Reverse Connection Trojan:

The hacker creates a Trojan with its own IP address, in this case, when a The victim executes the Trojan, the hacker gets the connection. the hacker needs to open one port for connection.


1 RAT is a remote administration tool used to create Trojans. anyone can use them Own coding to create Trojan too but RAT can help you to create it easily.

2 It is also used to control the victim’s computer. After creating and sending Trojan, the hacker needs to open a port on his system, for this a hacker can us RAT.

3 RAT is created by hackers to help hackers.

4 Even after getting the connection, the hacker can do various things like Webcam, can access file and folder operations, registry and even Victim’s command prompt using RAT.


  • RATS are available for both types of Trojans. Many RATS available on the internet like,

 – Cyber ​​Gate

 – Dark Comet

 – pro night

 – poison ivy

 – net bus etc

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1 Use antivirus 

2 Update firewall and antivirus

3 Don’t execute any unknown executable file in system.

4 Don’t click any unknown links 

5 Think twice before open email attachments

6 Don’t trust on windows & browser pop-ups

7 Only use trusted antivirus and malware software’s

8 Work only secured network

9 Don’t use public wi-fi with (VPN) virtual private network

10 Open a file extensions on PC.



 1 Go to this pc and click on view

 2 then click on options

 3 and again click on view

 4 then unclick a option (hide extensions for known file type) now all your system file extensions are visible. 



Ransomware is a type of malicious software (malware) that threatens to publish or block access to data or computer systems, usually by encrypting it, unless the victim pays a ransom fee to the attacker. In many cases, the ransom demand comes with a time limit. If the victim doesn’t pay on time, the data is gone forever or the ransom is raised. Read more at Ethical Hacking Classes in Pune

Ransomware attacks are very common these days. Major companies in North America and Europe alike have been victims of this. Cybercriminals will attack any consumer or any business and victims will come from all industries.


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Ransomware Protection

1 Never click on unsafe links: 

Avoid clicking on spam messages or links on unknown websites. If you click on a malicious link, an automatic download may be triggered, infecting your computer.


2  Avoid disclosing personal information: 

If you receive a call, text message or email from an untrusted source requesting personal information, do not respond. Cybercriminals who are planning a ransomware attack may try to collect personal information in advance, which is then used to craft phishing messages specifically for you. If there is any doubt whether the message is valid or not, contact the sender directly.


3 Don’t open suspicious email attachments: 

Ransomware can also access your device through email attachments. Avoid opening any suspicious looking attachments. To make sure the email is trustworthy, pay close attention to the sender and check that the address is correct. Never open attachments that prompt you to run them to view a macro. If the attachment is infected, opening it will run a malicious macro that provides malware control over your computer.


4 Never use unknown USB sticks: 

Never connect USB sticks or other storage media to your computer if you don’t know where they came from. Cybercriminals may have infected the storage medium and placed it in a public place to entice someone to use it.


5 Keep your programs and operating system up to date: 

Regularly updating programs and operating systems helps protect you from malware. When updating, make sure you benefit from the latest security patches. This makes it harder for cybercriminals to exploit vulnerabilities in your programs.


6 Use only known download sources: 

To reduce the risk of downloading ransomware, never download software or media files from unknown sites. Rely on verified and trusted sites for downloads. Such websites can be identified by the seals of trust. Make sure the browser address bar of the page you are visiting uses “https” instead of “http”. A shield or lock symbol in the address bar may also indicate that the page is protected. Also be careful when downloading anything to your mobile device. You can rely on Google Play Store or Apple App Store depending on your device.

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7 Use VPN services on public Wi-Fi networks: 

Conscientious use of public Wi-Fi networks is a sensible protective measure against ransomware. When using a public Wi-Fi network, your computer is more vulnerable to attacks. To stay safe, avoid using public Wi-Fi for sensitive transactions or use a secure VPN service. Learn more at Ethical Hacking Training in Pune



Rajat Sharma

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